Relformaiké Dictionary:Grammar

From Relformaiké Dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search

This page is currently a work-in-progress draft, and as such is not complete nor refined yet. Material below is subject to change or improvement over time.

Relformaiké, the subject of this Referata wiki, is a constructed auxiliary language inspired by the Romance branch of the Indo-European family, with agglutinative influences throughout. The name "Relformaiké" is the language's own word for "reformed",[1] which represents its efforts to reform the Romance languages and amend several defects in their grammar, particularly those related to gender.

Relformaiké is written in the standard Latin script employed by English and various other European, American, Austronesian, and indigenous Pan-American and Australian languages. Its alphabet contains all standard letters except C and Q—which are only found in imported surnames—and adds a CH digraph in place of the C.

Thanks to its flexibility, Relformaiké can emulate not only its major source languages (English plus the Romance and Germanic families), but also various others from different regions. It is a split-ergative language whose standard word order is Subject–verb–object (SVO). There are no standalone grammatical cases save for the genitive (possessive) in nouns and pronouns; the accusative in pronouns; and the ergative/unmarked absolutive and identificative in certain conditions.

Relformaiké consists of several hundred base morphemes, all of which are either free (capable of standing alone as either roots or affixoids) or bound (only found in derivations and inflections).[2] Roots in Relformaiké end in consonants (except for s), and are designed and chosen to be free of as much orthographical and semantic conflict as possible. Many are borrowed from various Romance languages, as well as their ancestor Latin; some more are sourced from other Indo-European branches and language families elsewhere.

Among those roots are several dozen adpositions, nearly all of which can also serve as either standalone prepositions, or postpositional stems attached to the end of a noun. Emphasis is focused on the final major root in any given combination, especially in the case of postpositions. Depending on the circumstances, a Relformaiké sentence can consist of several small-to-medium words, or a very long one-word phrase.



  1. Relformaiké uses a Latin-based alphabet of 25 letters for its native roots and words, leaving out C and Q (except in imported surnames and terms) and adding a digraph, CH.
  2. The language is spoken as it is written, with diphthongs and diacritics to assist in the pronunciation, spelling, and marking of words.
  3. It is comprised of free and bound morphemes, which can either serve as roots or affixes, and are used to form words of various lengths and constructs.
  4. The language's morphology and syntax are extremely flexible. In that regard, it can easily emulate the standards of English, as well as various Romance and Germanic languages. Its agglutinative nature also allows users to build long words à la Hungarian, Finnish, Turkish, and others of their ilk. In rare cases, extremely long one-word sentences can rival those occasionally found in the indigenous languages of North America, such as Greenlandic.
  5. Words are head-final—in which the emphasis is placed on the last root in any given combination—while standard sentences are head-initial.
  6. All words are categorised into nine classes: articles, nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, adpositions, conjunctions, and interjections.
    1. Nouns and pronouns assume gender, depending on whether they are animate (living) or inanimate. Animate subjects and objects end with -o (for masculine/male forms), -a (for feminine/female forms), and -e (for cases where the form's gender is unknown/undetermined, as well as for groups and demonstrative text). Inanimate subjects and objects almost always assume the neuter form;[3] -e is also applied. If articles precede them, then they also assume the noun's gender.
    2. Adjectives and adjectival phrases end with -i; adverbs and adverbial phrases with -u.
    3. Adpositions and conjunctions assume their original root forms.
    4. Interjections can also assume their root forms, or end with -(a)t.
    5. As in English, French, Spanish, and Portuguese, -s is the plural marker. This applies to all articles and nouns, and cases where pronouns and adjectives agree with the subsequent plural forms. The remaining parts of speech are never pluralised.
    6. All verbs have -ar as their infinitive ending—the base of a conjugation system that involves -at (for indicative forms), -ant (for the continuative tense), and so forth.
  7. Numbers, interrogatives, correlatives, and determiners constitute special classes that span across the parts of speech; determiners end the same way as nouns do.
  8. All standard root forms must end in a consonant, save for s (which is reserved as the plural marker). As they fall into conflict with the other end marker classes, vowels are not permitted (except for the a in verb tense markers).
  9. Base morphemes cannot contain double letters of any sort, although imported terms retain them. In addition, double consonants are acceptable in compound forms.
  10. The default word order is Subject–verb–object (SVO). Other forms can be used, but with a few caveats. (If Subject–object–verb [SOV] or Object–verb–subject [OVS] is employed, then the ergative intrafix -ib- is placed between the root and the gender marker of the sentence's subject.)
  11. To indicate possession by a referent, the genitive intrafix -oz- is used between the root and the end marker. If a complement is directly related to a possessee, then the proprietive marker -zol- is used in certain cases.
  12. As in French, quotations in text are enclosed by wilémètes («»); all other punctuation is used as in English et al.



Standard Latin convention, as well as English, possesses an alphabet of 26 letters:

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

In Relformaiké, there are 25:

a b ch d e f g h i j k l m n o p r s t u v w x y z

The ch digraph substitutes the c, which is otherwise reserved for imported surnames and terms, as is q. Familiar examples of the two stray letters' use can be found in Cousteau and QWERTY.

Relformaiké has no c in its native words, as the letter is better represented by its common phonetic equivalents of k, s, and z. Within imported names, the accented variants of ć (for /k/) and ç (for /s/ and /z/) are optional, resulting in the likes of Ćousteau and Luçiano among other forms.


Relformaiké is pronounced in much the same way as English, and so are most of its letterals:

Letter Sound Name IPA symbol(s) English example(s)
A ah āhe /a(ː)/, /ɑ(ː)/, /æ/ art, cat
B bay baye /b/ bay
CH chu chude /t͡ʃ/ chat
D dee diefe /d/ delight
E ay aye /e/, /ɛ/, /aɪ/, /ə/, /ɜː/ egg, herd
F eff efāye /f/ fair
G gee giefe /ɡ/[4] go, giraffe
H aych ayche /h/ humble
I ee íviye /i(ː)/, /ɪ/ bid
J jay jaye /d͡ʒ/ jack
K kay kaye /k/ kennel
L ell élide /l/ long
M em émide /m/ milk
N en énide /n/ nest
O oh ōhe /o(ː)/, /oʊ/, /ɔ/, /ɑː/, /ɒ/ more, over
P pay paye /p/ pray
R ahr ahre /ɹ/ rest
S ess esète /s/, /ʃ/ simmer
T tee tiefe /t/ tote
U you youfe /uː/, /ʌ/, /juː/, /ɜː/ use, Tudor, hurt
V vee vieze /v/ advance
W touvee touvvieze /w/ wink
X eks exine /ks/ exit
Y why whye /j/, /i/ yellow, hairy
Z zed zède /z/, /ʒ/ zone
C* seeta sietane /k/, /s/, /z/ magic, cite
Q* cue kúdane /kw/ quite

Three other digraphs are represented. (Even though sch uses three characters, it comprises two letters in Relformaiké—s and ch.)

Combo IPA symbol English example
SH /ʃ/ shilling
SCH /ʃ/ Schultz
NG /ŋ/ sing

Ten triple-consonant clusters, all sibilant, are also permitted to begin words:

Combo IPA symbol English example
Consonant triples
SCHL /ʃl/ schlepping
SCHM /ʃm/ schmaltz
SCHN /ʃn/ schnauzer
SCHR /ʃɹ/ Schroeder
SCHW /ʃw/ Schwartz
SHR /ʃɹ/ Shrove
SKR /skɹ/ scream
SPL /spl/ splash
SPR /spɹ/ spree
STR /stɹ/ strudel

In addition, the language possesses twelve diphthongs (vowel pairs sounded together) and six hiatuses (vowel pairs sounded separately):

Combo IPA symbol(s) English example(s)
AI /eɪ/ aim
AU /ɔ/, /aʊ/ caulk
EA /ɪə/, /ɪ/ appeal
EU /uː/, /əʊ/ feud
IE /iː/ Bernie
OA /oʊ/, /əʊ/ foal
OE /oʊ/ toe
OI /ɔɪ/ boil
OU /uː/ ghoul
UA /waː/ squad
UE /waɪ/ pueblo
UI /wiː/ squid
AO /eɪ.ɔ/ aorta, chaos
EI /eɪ.ə/ deity
EO /e.ɔ/ eon
ÍE /iː.eɪ/ Diego
IO /aɪ.ɔ/ lion
IU /iː.u/ diurnal

The consonant and vowel inventories are almost the same as those of English. (Corresponding graphemes are bolded.)

Phonemes Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m m n n ng ŋ
Stop p p b b t t d d j d͡ʒ ch t͡ʃ k k ɡ g
Fricative f f v v s s sh ʃ z z ź ʒ h h
Approximant l l r ɹ y j w w
Vowels Front Central Back
Close i(ː) ɪ u(ː) ʊ
Mid e/ɛ ə o(ː) ɔː
Open æ a(ː) ʌ ɑː ɒ


In Relformaiké, a variety of diacritics are used to represent various sounds and assist in letter-marking. As in French, these variants are not part of the language's standard alphabet.

Type Letters Function
a e i o u c g n s z
Acute á é í ó ú ć ģ ń ś ź
  • Marks the natural sounds of the vowels at the end of syllables.
  • In the case of c, denotes the /k/ sound in imported surnames and terms.
  • In the case of g, denotes the hard g (/dʒ/) in compounds.
  • In the case of n, attached to a vowel-initial word after a preceding vowel; cf. Ancient Greek's "movable nu".
  • In the case of s, used to mutate the root-final z before affixes starting with ch, h, k, m, n, p, t, or another s.
  • In the case of z, denotes the /ʒ/ (zh) sound in Aiźa (Asia).
Grave è Only used when e precedes a consonant and another e at the end of some words (e.g. aumbrète [young human]).
Breve ă ĕ ĭ ŏ ŭ Distinguishes certain root formations from other valid combinations.
Circumflex â ê î Indicates that the vowel is pronounced exactly as in English (/eɪ/, /iː/, /aɪ/).
Macron ā ē ī ō ū Signifies the start or end of syllables in some words.
Tilde ũ Denotes the /ɜː/ sound found in English words such as herd and hurt.
Umlaut ä ï ö Only used for mutated forms of select words when placed before roots beginning with certain letters in compounds:
Root Letters
b d f g j k l p s t v z
at, to
1 Select cases. 2 Rendered as töuf.
Caron ǐ ň š Connects articles, nouns, and pronouns in some compound forms. The ň is used for the singular, the š for plural, and the ǐ as a buffer between difficult consonant clusters.
Cedilla ç Used to mark the sound of /s/ (and sometimes /z/) in imported surnames and terms.

In addition, two Cyrillic characters—ғ and ѵ—are respectively used when mutating v before f/h/t, and f before v, in compounding.


Relformaiké carries the same inventory of punctuation marks found in various Indo-European languages. Its quotation marks (wilémètes, «») are borrowed from French; other symbols ([{<- — _ , ; : . ... ? ! & @ * # % $ € £ ¥ ¢ † ‡ § ~ + × ÷ = º / \ |>}]) remain as-is. (For usage examples, see § Parts of speech: Referential pronouns and § Syntax: Quotations and punctuation.)


With 25 letters in its alphabet, the maximum number of possible two-letter combinations in Relformaiké words and syllables is 625 (25²).

  1. Unlike most natural languages, and in similar fashion to Lojban's gismu, Relformaiké does not allow double letters (e.g. bb, dd, ee, ff, nn, ss) in its base roots.
    1. Double vowels only occur in surname imports, as in Boorman and Deere.
    2. Double consonants are permitted in native compounds, such as addez (tell; ad-, to object + dez-, say).
  2. In compounds, the final z of a root becomes ś before ch, h, k, m, n, p, s, and t.
  3. The letter x cannot begin any word apart from surname imports (most notably Xavier).
  4. Among consonant-only bigrams ending with x, only lx/nx/rx/yx are allowed within words; the rest are disallowed outside imports.
  5. chh is not permitted in base roots, but permitted in compounds. Also following this rule are homophones ph (= f), th (= d/f), rh (= r), wh (= w) and gh (= f/g).
  6. kh is conditionally permitted in base roots like lakh (an Indian term for 10,000); otherwise, it turns into k.
  7. These pairs are strictly prohibited:
    1. xk/xs/xz (= xik/xis/xiz in compounds)
    2. sz/ae (except in imports)

After excluding double vowels aa/ee/ii/oo/uu and double consonants ss/xx, one is left with 618 (25² - 7) possible bigrams in native words. From here, the remaining number depends on various factors as shown in the table below:

Elimination rule Combos left
Base Compound
At start Within At start Within
Rest of double consonants (bb, dd, ll, tt, &c.) 600 600 600 618
Pairs xk, xs, and xz 597 597 597 615
Rest of x-initial pairs (e.g. xd, xg, xn, xt) 576 576 576 615
sz 575 575 575 614
Pairs chh, gh, ph, rh, th, and wh 569 569 569 614
C + ch pairs (except sch) 552 569 552 614
C + b/d/f/g/j/v pairs 444 569 444 614
lx/nx/rx/yx 440 569 440 614
Rest of C + x pairs 425 554 425 599
Rest of C + s/C + z pairs 390 554 390 599
Rest of C + h pairs (except kh and sh) 380 554 380 599
Rest of C + k pairs (except sk) 363 554 363 599
C + l pairs (except [b/ch/f/g/k/p/s]l) 352 554 352 599
C + m/n/p/t pairs (except sm/sn/sp/st) 284 554 284 599
C + r pairs (except [b/d/f/g/k/p/t]r) 273 554 273 599
C + w pairs (except sw/tw/zw) 258 554 258 599
ae 257 553 257 598
ih, iy, and uy 254 553 254 598
iu and oe 252 553 252 598
ua, ue, uo, and uw 248 553 248 598

Therefore, one is left with 248 possible opening bigrams, or 40.065% of the initial maximum:

Permitted two-letter opening combinations in Relformaiké (marked in green)
aa ab ach ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap ar as at au av aw ax ay az
ba bb bch bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz
cha chb chch chd che chf chg chh chi chj chk chl chm chn cho chp chr chs cht chu chv chw chx chy chz
da db dch dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz
ea eb ech ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez
fa fb fch fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz
ga gb gch gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz
ha hb hch hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hr hs ht hu hv hw hx hy hz
ia ib ich id ie if ig ih ii ij ik il im in io ip ir is it iu iv iw ix iy iz
ja jb jch jd je jf jg jh ji jj jk jl jm jn jo jp jr js jt ju jv jw jx jy jz
ka kb kch kd ke kf kg kh ki kj kk kl km kn ko kp kr ks kt ku kv kw kx ky kz
la lb lch ld le lf lg lh li lj lk ll lm ln lo lp lr ls lt lu lv lw lx ly lz
ma mb mch md me mf mg mh mi mj mk ml mm mn mo mp mr ms mt mu mv mw mx my mz
na nb nch nd ne nf ng nh ni nj nk nl nm nn no np nr ns nt nu nv nw nx ny nz
oa ob och od oe of og oh oi oj ok ol om on oo op or os ot ou ov ow ox oy oz
pa pb pch pd pe pf pg ph pi pj pk pl pm pn po pp pr ps pt pu pv pw px py pz
ra rb rch rd re rf rg rh ri rj rk rl rm rn ro rp rr rs rt ru rv rw rx ry rz
sa sb sch sd se sf sg sh si sj sk sl sm sn so sp sr ss st su sv sw sx sy sz
ta tb tch td te tf tg th ti tj tk tl tm tn to tp tr ts tt tu tv tw tx ty tz
ua ub uch ud ue uf ug uh ui uj uk ul um un uo up ur us ut uu uv uw ux uy uz
va vb vch vd ve vf vg vh vi vj vk vl vm vn vo vp vr vs vt vu vv vw vx vy vz
wa wb wch wd we wf wg wh wi wj wk wl wm wn wo wp wr ws wt wu wv ww wx wy wz
ya yb ych yd ye yf yg yh yi yj yk yl ym yn yo yp yr ys yt yu yv yw yx yy yz
za zb zch zd ze zf zg zh zi zj zk zl zm zn zo zp zr zs zt zu zv zw zx zy zz

After removing bigrams which end with vowels and s (per language rules), and factoring in the tense markers /plé//péfé, there are 136 potential biliteral morphemes (or 21.971% of the initial maximum, or 54.839% of all legal combos). Of these, 15 (or 11.029%, not counting plural markers) are documented in Relformaiké.[5]

Permitted two-letter word root combinations in Relformaiké (marked in green)
aa ab ach ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap ar as at au av aw ax ay az
ba bb bch bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz
cha chb chch chd che chf chg chh chi chj chk chl chm chn cho chp chr chs cht chu chv chw chx chy chz
da db dch dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz
ea eb ech ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez
fa fb fch fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz
ga gb gch gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz
ha hb hch hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hr hs ht hu hv hw hx hy hz
ia ib ich id ie if ig ih ii ij ik il im in io ip ir is it iu iv iw ix iy iz
ja jb jch jd je jf jg jh ji jj jk jl jm jn jo jp jr js jt ju jv jw jx jy jz
ka kb kch kd ke kf kg kh ki kj kk kl km kn ko kp kr ks kt ku kv kw kx ky kz
la lb lch ld le lf lg lh li lj lk ll lm ln lo lp lr ls lt lu lv lw lx ly lz
ma mb mch md me mf mg mh mi mj mk ml mm mn mo mp mr ms mt mu mv mw mx my mz
na nb nch nd ne nf ng nh ni nj nk nl nm nn no np nr ns nt nu nv nw nx ny nz
oa ob och od oe of og oh oi oj ok ol om on oo op or os ot ou ov ow ox oy oz
pa pb pch pd pe pf pg ph pi pj pk pl pm pn po pp pr ps pt pu pv pw px py pz
ra rb rch rd re rf rg rh ri rj rk rl rm rn ro rp rr rs rt ru rv rw rx ry rz
sa sb sch sd se sf sg sh si sj sk sl sm sn so sp sr ss st su sv sw sx sy sz
ta tb tch td te tf tg th ti tj tk tl tm tn to tp tr ts tt tu tv tw tx ty tz
ua ub uch ud ue uf ug uh ui uj uk ul um un uo up ur us ut uu uv uw ux uy uz
va vb vch vd ve vf vg vh vi vj vk vl vm vn vo vp vr vs vt vu vv vw vx vy vz
wa wb wch wd we wf wg wh wi wj wk wl wm wn wo wp wr ws wt wu wv ww wx wy wz
ya yb ych yd ye yf yg yh yi yj yk yl ym yn yo yp yr ys yt yu yv yw yx yy yz
za zb zch zd ze zf zg zh zi zj zk zl zm zn zo zp zr zs zt zu zv zw zx zy zz


Relformaiké consists of several hundred base morphemes, all of which are either free (capable of standing alone) or bound (only found in derivations and inflections).[2] Depending on their function and position in a word, they can either serve as roots (capable of standing alone semantically) or affixes (capable of inflecting a root).


Source languages

Roots comprise the vast majority of Relformaiké's base morphemes; all of them end with a consonant (save for s) and vary in length. Many of them are borrowed from the Romance languages (French, Spanish, Portuguese, &c.) as well as their ancestor, Latin. Some are derived from the Greek, Baltic (Lithuanian, Latvian), Slavic (Russian, Macedonian, Czech), and Germanic (German, Dutch, Swedish) branches of Indo-European; a plethora from earlier and more modern varieties of English; several from the Uralic family (Hungarian, Finnish); and others from Afro-Asiatic (Hebrew, Arabic, Maltese), Niger-Congo (Swahili, Xhosa), Austronesian (Malagasy), Cariban, Arawakan, established language isolates Basque and Korean, and more.

Final consonants

There are 19 consonants that roots can end with:

a b ch d e f g h i j k l m n o p r s t u v w x y z

Of these 19, five are used as standalone uniliteral roots, and (as the shortest ones in Relformaiké) are part of the core (kẽrn) group:

  • l- (DEF.ART — the art def)
  • m- (1SG — 1st person singular; I/my/me prn)
  • t- (2SG.FAM — 2nd person singular, familiar; you[r] prn)
  • b- (be v)
  • v- (go)

There are several two-letter roots, including:

  • -ad- (to)
  • -av- (PERF — perfect verb)
  • ed (and)
  • -et- (DIM — diminutive suff)
  • -ib- (ERG — ergative marker)
  • -id- (state of being suff)
  • -if- (characterised by suff)
  • -oz- (GEN — genitive/possession marker)
  • un- (INDEF.ART — a[n]/some art indef).

Derivation rules

Base roots in Relformaiké are formulated and chosen so that:

  1. they can be as machine-readable as possible, as with Lojban (another constructed language); and
  2. their spellings do not conflict with those of other roots or legible combinations.[6]

Thanks to the above factors, it is possible to form new roots that combine existing ones with nonexistent or invalid strings:

  • déoz- (awe), sourced from Greek, contains the -oz- possessive marker at the end, but the first two letters () are an invalid combo ending with a vowel. Similarly, ríant (Welsh for "parent") combines the invalid with the continuative verb mood marker, -ant, and yẽrt (hit) = standalone y- + ẽrt (early).

Extra care should be taken when forming roots that begin with pé/per, plé/pler, and fé/fer (the verb tense markers), b (be), or v (go):

  • fer- (or féroz-) cannot represent the Latin for "wild" or "savage"; instead, Armenian-sourced vairim is used. Similarly, féroav (with the free combo oav) refers to the Latin ferrum, or iron.
  • peint (paint) is acceptable, since the mere combination of pé- and int (in) is otherwise invalid. (Per language rules, the correct form is per-int-.)

If the source word serves as an adposition and/or conjunction, then the Relformaiké root should not end with a consonant followed by l or r (e.g. -fl, -dr, -pr, -tr), as such combos may prove unwieldy to pronounce. Interjection roots can also end with Cr; as a rule, -at is the mandatory marker.

Double consonants are not permitted in base roots, but are acceptable in compound forms (e.g. addez — tell [ad, "to object" + dez, "say"]).


Affixes in Relformaiké are either inflectional/derivational markers, or normal roots modifying the meaning of a preceding stem. As in the Romance languages and English, they are either prefixes (at the start of words) or suffixes (at the end).

Nouns, pronouns, and articles

Relformaiké reserves three vowels to mark gender at the end of nouns, pronouns, and articles:

  • -o (MASC — male)
  • -a (FEM — female)
  • -e (N — neuter/unspecified/pan-gender)


All adjectives and adjectival phrases (ADJ) end in -i, and are derivational. Comparatives are formed by suffixing -rak after the root, and superlatives with -ráken; the same applies for adverbs.


Adverbs and adverbial phrases (ADV) end in -u, and are also derivational. -u is equivalent to English -ly, French -ment, and Spanish -mente in most given cases.


Infinitive verbs end with -ar, as many do in Spanish. Conjugation involves

  • -at for indicative forms;
  • -aid for the conditional and subjunctive moods;
  • -ait for the imperative;
  • -ant for the continuative and progressive moods (present participle);
  • -ain for gerunds (present participle);
  • -aijat for the prospective aspect;
  • -aik for past participles.

The -av- affix is also used for perfect forms, resulting in:

  • -avar, perfect infinitive;
  • -avat, perfect indicative;
  • -avaid, perfect conditional;
  • -avant, perfect continuative/progressive;
  • -avaijat, perfect prospective.

There are four tense markers (or preverbs) which are added before indicative forms, as well as conditional/subjunctive and continuative/progressive forms; the present tense has none. These are the only prefixes in Relformaiké to end with vowels.

  • pé-/(pre-vowel) per- — Past
  • plé-/(pre-vowel) pler- — Past Habitual
  • fé-/(pre-vowel) fer- — Future
  • péfé-/(pre-vowel) péfer- — Future in the Past

Negation is expressed with the nal- prefix, which always precedes the preverb slot.


Interjections either assume their root forms with no markers, or end with -(a)t.

Adpositions and conjunctions

Adpositions and conjunctions always assume their root forms, with no markers whatsoever.


As in English, French, Spanish, and Portuguese, plural forms are denoted with an -s at the end of nouns, pronouns, and articles, as well as any adjectives preceding nouns. This is the final possible slot in Relformaiké's word formation system; verbs and adverbs, as a rule, do not take plural endings.

  • -os (MASC-PL — male plural)
  • -as (FEM-PL — female plural)
  • -es (N-PL — neuter plural)
  • -is (ADJ-PL — plural adjective)

In complex compound forms, -*s (as applies to nouns) becomes -*š before the focus root, as in the emphatic pronoun nútrílešsèbes (we ourselves; literally, "we, the selves").

Base affix chart

Stem Meaning Type
nal- predicate/complement negation marker Free
pé-/per- past tense; former, ex- Bound
plé-/pler- past habitual tense (used to) Bound
fé-/fer- future tense; "-to-be" Bound
nad- intensifier Bound
nid- non-, not, un- Free
rel- re-, repeated, again, anew Free
ver- back(wards) Free
prev- before Free
áprev- after Free
-ad- to (of indirect objects); at (of places) Free
-aup- to(wards) (a location or thing) Free
-dẽr- of, belonging to/associated with Free
-pir- for (a place or thing, in designation) Free
-int- in (a place or thing) Free
-tranz- through (a place or object) Free
-fir- out of, outside (a place or thing) Free
-sal- out of (a place or thing, in departure) Free
-weg- off the surface of (an object of origin) Free
-vek- with, accompanied by (someone/something) Free
-wan- with (an instrument/tool/device) Free
-proxim- near, next to, close by (a location or thing); nearly/almost # Free
-raz- times #, #-fold (prefix); multiple of x (suffix) (only with numbers) Free
-shak- each/every (prefix); per object (suffix) Free
-ard 1,000,000x (one million [of], in numbers); augmentative suffix (for other words) Bound
-tam about/approximately/roughly # (only with numbers) Free
-tem #st/nd/rd/th (only in ordinal numbers) Bound
-tim x/# (in fractions); a small piece/portion/segment (of inanimate subjects) Free
-iak on (the surface of) Free
-ósot up to the point of (a place), until Free
-kauz because (of), for the sake of Free
-ómist for/(dedicated) to (in media); for the benefit of Free
-anfel prone/susceptible/liable to (something) Free
-ámel frequent(ly), often, occasional(ly) (of an action or state) Free
-euz full of... Bound
-nível (originating) from a place, person, or thing Free
-sin without, -less Free
-set set or group of... Free
-maz collection of... Free
-budin team of... (only with animate subjects) Free
-tánul the study/field of... Free
-ail of or pertaining to a place, person, or thing Bound
-íen someone who is/does, comes from/lives in/resides in (of places), plays (of games/sports), specialises in Bound
-íer something that does... (with action verbs) Bound
-et young animal/plant (animate subjects); miniature, brief (inanimate subjects) Bound
-eb baby/newborn (of animals), seedling/sapling (of plants) Bound
-rak comparative (cf. English -er) Free
-ráken superlative (cf. English -est) Free
-ruk less... Free
-rúken least... Free
-inz causative verb marker (to cause/make...) Free
-iz the act of turning/transforming into/converting to... Bound
-id the quality or state of being... Bound
-if the nature of (being)/characterised by... (adjectives and adverbs) Bound
-aig the action of... Free
-seul only, exclusively Free
-leiv equal to, like Free
-símil similar to Free
-den more than/much as (an object) (after comparatives formed with -rak) Free
-ib ergative marker (only in certain sentence orders; see below) Bound
-íbin identificative marker (only in certain sentence orders; see below) Bound
-eun topic marker (cf. English "speaking of/as for SBJ") Bound
-oz possessive marker (only in nouns and pronouns; cf. English 's) Bound
-zol proprietive marker (in complements associated with a referent; see below) Free
-zeg quotative/indirect speech marker Free
-e neuter noun Bound
-o masculine noun Bound
-a feminine noun Bound
-i adjective, adjectival phrase Bound
-u adverb, adverbial phrase Bound
-s plural Bound
-ar infinitive verb Bound
-av perfect verb[7] Bound
-at indicative verb Bound
-aid conditional/subjunctive verb[8] Bound
-ait imperative verb Bound
-ant continuative/progressive verb Bound
-ain gerund noun from verb; the result of an action Bound
-aijat prospective aspect verb[9] Bound
-aik past participle of verb Bound


As in various agglutinative languages and the already established Esperanto (also a constructed language itself), new words in Relformaiké can be formed out of existing base roots and affixes (as will be seen later in § Word formation).

Word classes

All words in Relformaiké are categorised into nine classes: articles, pronouns, nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, adpositions, conjunctions, and interjections.



English has one definite article, the, which translates into lo (masculine), la (feminine) and le (neuter) in Relformaiké. Example:

lo ríanto (the father), la ríanta (the mother), le ríante (the parent).

If a neuter word's last three letters are e + C + e, then the penultimate e receives a grave accent (è):

lo jouvíeno (the boy), la jouvíena (the girl), le jouviène (the child/young one).

When a plural noun is used, -s is likewise added to the end of the preceding article as in French and Spanish:

los ríantos (the fathers), las ríantas (the mothers), les ríantes (the parents).
los jouvíenos (the boys), las jouvíenas (the girls), les jouviènes (the children/young ones).

Lo/la/le exhibits elision similar to French when it becomes l' before a vowel:

l'aumbro (the man), l'aumbra (the woman), l'aumbré (the person).

It switches back to los/las/les in plural form, however:

los aumbros (the men), las aumbras (the women), les aumbrés (the persons/people).

Countries with traditional plural forms remain that way when converted into Relformaiké:

les Oaninzaikis Paiśtimes (United States), les Baśpaizes (Netherlands),[10] les Mauldives (Maldives), les Filipines (Philippines).


English's indefinite article, a(n), corresponds to uno (masculine), una (feminine), and une (neuter) in Relformaiké:

uno jouvíeno (a boy), una jouvíena (a girl), une jouviène (a youngster).

Before vowels, it turns into un':

un'aumbra (a woman), un'audière (an ear).

Pluralised, it becomes the word for some:

unos jouvíenos (some boys), unas aumbras (some women), unes aumbrètes (some children).



Relformaiké's pronoun system is modelled after that of Spanish, and honours the T–V distinction found in the Romance languages and Latin.

All pronouns decline for case, number, and gender, as do nouns. This table covers the basic neuter forms; for a complete rundown, see Project:Pronoun chart.

Person Type
Subject Object Indirect Possessive Reflexive Reflexive Emphatic
Determiner / Pronoun Adjective Verb Emphatic
1st Singular mié madé mozé mozi mozar mísébozé misèbe milisèbe
2nd Singular (Familiar) tié tadé tozé tozi tozar tísébozé tisèbe tilisèbe
2nd Singular (Formal) usté ustié ustadé ustozé ustozi ustozar ustsébozé ustsèbe ustlisèbe
3rd Singular lumé lumié lumadé lumozé lumozi lumozar lumsébozé lumsèbe lumlisèbe
1st Plural nútré nútrié nútradé nútrozé nútrozi nútrozar nútrísébozé nútrisèbe nútrilešsèbes
2nd Plural (Familiar) vútré vútrié vútradé vútrozé vútrozi vútrozar vútrísébozé vútrisèbe vútrilešsèbes
2nd Plural (Formal) ustré ustrié ustradé ustrozé ustrozi ustrozar ustrísébozé ustrisèbe ustrilešsèbes
3rd Plural lútré lútrié lútradé lútrozé lútrozi lútrozar lútrísébozé lútrisèbe lútrilešsèbes


Relformaiké employs a special pronoun, zané/zano/zana, to denote the subject last referred to. It is inspired by, and acts the same way as, Lojban ri.

Jemp lumo vat, zano prendat les klèfes. (When he goes, he takes the keys.) (The zano is the lumo the sentence refers to, and no one else.)

When the subject is also the object, zanié/zanio/zania is used:

Jemp luma vat, toutiène vat vek zania. (When she goes, everyone goes with her.)

If another sentence refers to the object, then zanilé/zanilo/zanila is used:

Jauno véyat l'aibũre. Zanilé bat trezaulti. (John sees the tree. It is very tall.)

When two or more items are stated, a reference number follows zan(il)*, as demonstrated in this translation from Herman Melville's Moby-Dick (Chapter 135, "The Chase — Third Day"):

«Naivarda! Moarttenière!—touғtème moarttenière!» pékrivat Âhab nível zanoana; «zantrigozé drève seulbaid Ámeriki!»
"The ship! The hearse!—the second hearse!" cried Ahab from the boat; "its wood could only be American!"

Here, zanoana refers to the ship Captain Ahab himself is on, and zantrigozé refers to "the second hearse".


In addition, the language possesses several relative pronouns, all of which are counterparts to the interrogatives and begin with j.

Pronoun Interrogative Parent morpheme English meaning
jiène kiène -íen who
jíenie kíenie -íen whom
jíenoze kíenoze -íen whose
jière kière -íer which, that


In Relformaiké, nouns given to members of the taxonomic kingdom Animalia are assigned masculine (male) and feminine (female) forms, ending in -o and -a respectively. This is the case for human beings, as shown below:

aumbro (man; male human) corresponds to aumbra (woman; female human). Similarly, jouvíeno (young male) corresponds to jouvíena (young female).

Plurals are formed by adding an -s at the end:

aumbros (men)/aumbras (women); jouvíenos (young males)/jouvíenas (young females).

The above rules also apply to non-human animals:

chono(s)/chona(s) (cat[s]); kaino(s)/kaina(s) (dog[s]); bályno(s)/bályna(s) (whale[s]).

When the subject's gender is unknown, undetermined, unspecified, or irrelevant, the neuter form (-e) is assumed; this also applies to groups and crowds with members in both genders:

aumbré(s) (person[s]); ríante(s) (parents); jouviène(s) (young person[s]); choné(s) (cat[s]); kaine(s) (dog[s]); bályne(s) (whale[s]).

Although they are living organisms, plants and trees are considered neuter:

l'aibũre (tree), le flũre (flower), l'ulvé (garden/swamp weed).

All other nouns are considered inanimate, and also end with -e:

le chaize (chair; concrete object), le vasare (summer; abstract concept), l'astreltánule (astronomy; study/field).


For words in this category, the same rules for gender apply:

  • pólizíeno (policeman)/pólizíena (policewoman) — BUT le pólize (the police [force])
  • pîloto/pîlota (pilot)
  • brulsiviníero/brulsiviníera (firefighter)
  • livrálenkazíeno/livrálenkazíena (librarian)
  • ódígíeno/ódígíena (leader [of a country]; driver [of a car])
  • regíeno (king)/regíena (queen)
  • regíenaunfo (prince)/regíenaunfa (princess)
  • dúko (duke)/dúka (duchess)
  • Sénoro (Sro., Mister/Mr.)/Sénora (Sra., Missis/Mrs.); Moinsénora (Msra., Miss/Ms.)
  • Aultíeno/Aultíena (Highness)
  • (lo) Paipo (the Pope)

Proper nouns

Proper nouns are converted per Relformaiké's spelling conventions. All first names of people are given -o/-a endings, depending on the subject's gender. Names of languages are treated as neuter, ending with -e. In similar fashion to Ido, place names can either end with -e or inherit the -o or -a from the original word, but remain neuter.

Given names
  • Adamo (Adam)
  • Jauno (John)
  • Wilemo (William)
  • Kaita (Kate)
  • Mariya (Mary)
  • Judiya (Judy)
Place names
  • Íroape - Europe
  • Ámerika - America
  • Kánaida - Canada
  • Mexiko - Mexico
  • Karibine - the Caribbean
  • Atlantike - the Atlantic
  • Pásifike - the Pacific
  • Afrika - Africa
  • Aiźa - Asia
  • Austrailya - Australia
  • Antartika - Antarctica
  • Angleklinge - English
  • Eyrenlinge - Irish
  • Franzlinge - French
  • Spanlinge - Spanish
  • Poartuginlinge - Portuguese
  • Alémanlinge - German
  • Ítalinlinge - Italian
  • Ruschenlinge - Russian
  • Airablinge - Arabic
  • Hiebrouvlinge - Hebrew
  • Hindinlinge - Hindi
  • Mandarinlinge - Mandarin Chinese
  • Japaunlinge - Japanese
  • Indóniesinlinge - Indonesian
  • Swáhilinlinge - Swahili
  • Malgachlinge - Malagasy
  • Guaranivlinge - Guarani
  • Esperlinge - Esperanto
  • Laugiklinge - Lojban

Imported words

Surnames, terms such as QWERTY, and names of species (such as Homo sapiens) are mainly borrowed from English, and do not change their spellings in Relformaiké. This is the only instance where the language permits the use of c and q. (To mark pronunciation, c is converted into either ć [for /k/] or ç [for /s/].)


  • While inanimate in nature, Relformaiké nonetheless follows English tradition with the feminine naiva (boat) and naivarda (ship).
  • "Pizza" is feminine in French, Spanish, and the native Italian; Relformaiké renders the term as the neuter pizane.


All verbs in Relformaiké end with -ar in their infinitive forms, and possess regular conjugation throughout. Unlike in the Romance languages, they are not marked for person, but rather solely for tense and mood (as well as the perfect and prospective aspects).


As in English, Relformaiké contains five levels of verbal valency: impersonal, intransitive, transitive, ditransitive, and tritransitive. Valency determines the number of arguments that a verbal predicate takes.


With impersonal verbs, a dummy subject such as "it" precedes the predicate. In Relformaiké, they do not conjugate in the passive voice at all; words dealing with weather conditions are the most common examples, among them pleuvar (to rain) and nívinar (to snow). Whereas English uses "It rains", Relformaiké drops the subject entirely and simply uses Pleuvat.


In sentences with intransitive verbs, only the subject is involved. In Relformaiké, intransitives also lack passive conjugation; examples include bar (be), var (go), naizar (give birth), hódizar (happen/occur/take place), and adjective-based constructs.

Luma pévat. (She went.)
Le pastèle tóbinat. (The cake is white.)

Transitive verbs normally take a subject and an object in sentences; Relformaiké examples include avar (have), véyar (see), mitar (send), and tenar (hold).

Lumo véyat le sitove. (He sees the city.)
Lútra kantat une kanté. (They [the women] sing a song.)

Transitives also behave like intransitives when no object is present, as in:

Bobino troavat nïffásilu. (Bobby works hard.)

Ditransitive verbs take a subject and two objects, one direct and the other indirect. Relformaiké marks the indirect object with the ad adposition, as shown in this example involving dónar (give):

Máfeulo fédonat les livrés ad l'aumbreta. (Matthew will give the books to the girl.)

Some sources classify English bet as tritransitive (taking three objects). The Relformaiké equivalent, záklar, requires an indirect object, a direct object, and a relative clause at most:

Ma záklat tado touve zanahauris pasteltimes jíer Bellwether férelválimaikat. (I bet you two slices of carrot cake that Bellwether gets re-elected.)

Conjugation examples

Example 1: bar

Equivalents of this verb are extremely irregular in various natural languages. Its conjugation in Relformaiké is an exception, along with the Esperanto equivalent esti and Ido esar.

It is ungrammatical in English to precede be's past participle, been, with any other form of that verb. The same applies in Relformaiké, where bar lacks passive conjugation. The participle is retained in the perfect form, bavat (have/has been).

Infinitive: bar (to be)
Category Form Meaning
Affirmative Negative
Present bat nalbat (I) am, (we/you/they) are, (he/she/it) is
Past pébat nalpébat (I/he/she/it) was, (you/they) were
Past Habitual plébat nalplébat ...used to be
Future fébat nalfébat ...will be
Future in the Past péfébat nalpéfébat ...would be
baid nalbaid (that) SBJ be
Imperative bait! nalbait! be!
Cohortative fébait! nalfébait! let's (= let us) be!
Present Participle
(Continuative/Progressive Active)
bant[11] nalbant[11] be being
Present Participle
baine nalbaine (the) being
Prospective baijat nalbaijat about to be, going to be
Past Participle baik nalbaik been
Passive Infinitive [12] [12]
Progressive Passive Infinitive [13] [13]
Past Participle Infinitive
(Perfect Active)
bavar nalbavar (to) have been
Perfect Passive Infinitive [14] [14]
Example 2: mankar

This root conjugates in both the active and passive voices. The French counterpart, manger, possesses regular conjugation (albeit with a few spelling adjustments where applicable). The English past tense form (ate) and past participle (eaten) deviate from the regular eat(s)/eating.

Infinitive: mankar (to eat)
Category Form Meaning
Affirmative Negative
Present mankat nalmankat (I/we/you/they) eat, (he/she/it) eats
Past pémankat nalpémankat ...ate
Past Habitual plémankat nalplémankat ...used to eat
Future fémankat nalfémankat ...will eat
Future in the Past péfémankat nalpéfémankat ...would eat
mankaid nalmankaid (that) SBJ eat
Imperative mankait! nalmankait! eat!
Cohortative fémankait! nalfémankait! let's (= let us) eat!
Present Participle Infinitive
(Continuative/Progressive Active)
mankant nalmankant be eating
Present Participle
mankaine nalmankaine (the) eating
Prospective mankaijat nalmankaijat about to eat, going to eat
Past Participle mankaik nalmankaik eaten
Passive Infinitive mankaikar nalmankaikar be eaten
Progressive Passive Infinitive mankaikantar nalmankaikantar be being eaten
Past Participle Infinitive
(Perfect Active)
mankavar nalmankavar (to) have eaten
Perfect Passive Infinitive mankíamavar nalmankíamavar have been eaten
Example 3: foartar

Adjectives can also be used to form verbs (meaning "to be ADJ"), but do not conjugate in the passive voice (as explained in Example 1).

Infinitive: foartar (to be strong)
Category Form Meaning
Affirmative Negative
Present foartat nalfoartat (I) am strong, (we/you/they) are strong, (he/she/it) is strong
Past péfoartat nalpéfoartat (I/he/she/it) was strong, (you/they) were strong
Past Habitual pléfoartat nalpléfoartat ...used to be strong
Future féfoartat nalféfoartat ...will be strong
Future in the Past péféfoartat nalpéféfoartat ...would be strong
foartaid nalfoartaid (that) SBJ be strong
Imperative foartait! nalfoartait! be strong!
Cohortative féfoartait! nalféfoartait! let's (= let us) be strong!
Present Participle
(Continuative/Progressive Active)
foartant nalfoartant (be) being strong
Present Participle
foartaine nalfoartaine (the) being strong; strength
Prospective foartaijat nalfoartaijat about to be strong, going to be strong
Past Participle foartaik nalfoartaik been strong
Passive Infinitive
Progressive Passive Infinitive
Past Participle Infinitive
(Perfect Active)
foartavar nalfoartavar (to) have been strong
Perfect Passive Infinitive
Example 4: intar

Verbs can also be formed from most adpositions; again, these forms do not conjugate in the passive voice. The past, past habitual, and future preverbs respectively become per-, pler-, and fer- before this vowel-initial root.

Infinitive: intar (to be in)
Category Form Meaning
Affirmative Negative
Present intat nalintat (I) am in, (we/you/they) are in, (he/she/it) is in
Past perintat nalperintat (I/he/she/it) was in, (you/they) were in
Past Habitual plerintat nalplerintat ...used to be in
Future ferintat nalferintat ...will be in
Future in the Past péferintat nalpéferintat ...would be in
intaid nalintaid (that) SBJ be in
Imperative intait! nalintait! be in!
Cohortative ferintait! nalferintait! let's (= let us) be in!
Present Participle
(Continuative/Progressive Active)
intant nalintant (be) being in
Present Participle
intaine nalintaine (the) being in
Prospective intaijat nalintaijat about to be in, going to be in
Past Participle intaik nalintaik been in
Passive Infinitive
Progressive Passive Infinitive
Past Participle Infinitive
(Perfect Active)
intavar nalintavar (to) have been in
Perfect Passive Infinitive
Example 5: skríbar

This is based on the rundown found in a late 19th-century book detailing the grammar of Manchu, an almost-extinct language of China.[15] (The continuative/progressive forms of this verb stand in for the translations marked as "Gerunds", while one of the "Verbal Nouns" is in fact a typical Relformaiké gerund.)

Paradigm of skríbar (to write)
(Original verb: arambi)
Category Form Meaning
Imperative skríbait! write!
Present Tense skríbat I write
Infinitive skríbar to write
Preterite péskríbat I wrote
Future féskríbat I shall write
Conditional skríbaid-mé should I write
Subjunctive Present skríbaid-lumo may he write
Past Gerund péskríbavant having written
Imperfect péskríbant I was writing
Indefinite Past skríbavat I have written
Pluperfect péskríbavat I had written
Past Conditional sif mé péskríbavaid if I had written
Adversative toutbélam lumo skríbaid although he may write
Concessive skríbait-lumo may he write
Optative seulsif lumo skríbaid would that he write
Gerund I dũrskríbant while writing
Gerund II skríbavant having written
Gerund III prevskríbant before writing
Passive skríbaikat it is written
Causative or Passive skríbaikinzat I cause to be written
Verbal Noun skríbaine, skríbiène the writing, the writer
Indefinite kíenkive skríbat whoever writes
Adverbial skríbantu in the manner of writing



Adjectives and adjectival phrases in Relformaiké end in -i, and come either before nouns (as in English) or after (as in French). Examples:

lo beli jouvíeno (the beautiful young male), la beli jouvíena (the beautiful girl), le beli kaze (the beautiful house), une vèye frolrákeni (a sight most delightful).

Elision is also observed, as in la bel'aumbra (the beautiful girl).

As in the Romance languages, adjectives end in -is if the nouns they describe are plural:

las gentilis aumbretas (the gentle girls), les foartis bomés (the strong walls).

In a sentence of SVD (subject–verb–description) syntax, the adjective is not pluralised if it follows the noun and verb:

le(s) nouvi(s) kaze(s) (the new house[s]) — BUT le(s) kaze(s) bat nouvi (the house is/the houses are new).

Comparatives and superlatives

Comparative forms of adjectives are made by adding -rak at the end of a root; superlatives are formed with -ráken. Suppletion is thereby avoided in those forms.

joali/joalraki/joalrákeni (good/better/best);
beni/benraki/benrákeni (well/better/best);
mali/malraki/malrákeni (bad/worse/worst);
aulti/aultraki/aultrákeni (high/higher/highest).

To express "less"/"least", -ruk and -rúken are used:

boulaiki/boulaikruki/boulaikrúkeni (important/less important/least important).



Adverbs, and adverbial phrases, end with -u. This is equivalent to the English -ly, French -ment and Spanish -mente in most given cases. Examples include:

belu (beautifully), fásilu (easily), vauvu (generously), peuvtempu (in a short while; adverbial phrase).

Comparatives and superlatives

Comparative and superlative adverbs are formed in the same manner as adjectives:

véyu/veyraku/veyrákenu (visually/more visually/most visually);
audábilu/audábilruku/audábilrúkenu (audibly/less audibly/least audibly).


Several relative adverbs are also used:

Pronoun Interrogative Parent root English meaning
jedu kedu sted where
jempu kempu temp when
jóvaudu kóvaudu póvaud why
jówanu kówanu wan how


In Relformaiké, adpositions are the same as the root forms they derive from, and also serve as standalone prepositions. Many of them are root affixes which double as postpositions after the nouns they modify.

  • ad (at, to)
  • int (in)
  • fir (out[side])
  • firv (out of, away from)
  • weg (off [surface], out of)
  • sũr (on – by means of [medium]; supported by)
  • iak (on the surface of)
  • prin (on – about; concerning)
  • dẽr (of, belonging to)
  • pir (for, per)
  • vek (with, accompanied by)
  • wan (with the help of, aided by)
  • sin (without)
  • sog (plus)
  • moin (minus)
  • intad (within, inside)
  • ïnffir (without – outside)
  • proxim (near, next to, [near]by)
  • róvinad (beside, at the side of, next to)
  • otrírovin (opposite)
  • äbboard (aboard)
  • ault (above, up, over)
  • baz (below, under[neath], beneath, down)
  • nand (as – in the role of)
  • aup (towards)
  • tranz (through, across)
  • intaup (into)
  • iakad (onto, upon, atop)
  • dũr (during)
  • prev (before, by [a given time])
  • áprev (after, following)
  • ósot (till)
  • nadósot (until)
  • touttranz (throughout)
  • áprevtemp (since, past a time)
  • vorb (beyond, past)
  • vervorb (behind, beneath)
  • ódim (against, versus)
  • prolad (between)
  • oanstel (among, one of)
  • mazint (among a group of, amid)
  • mẽrkint (amidst, in the middle of)
  • símil (like)
  • ótrid (unlike)
  • kuam (


As with adpositions, conjunctions also assume their root forms.

  • sog (and/plus)
  • sed (but – rather)
  • moin (but – except; minus)
  • jówan (how)
  • gían (so)
  • ẽrgim (so – therefore)
  • sif (if)
  • oudin (or – inclusive; either...or...or both; and/or)
  • ouden (or – exclusive; either...or; one or the other)
  • nal...ouden (neither...nor)
  • kópaur (whether)
  • kópaur...ouden (whether...or)
  • leiv (as – in the same way)
  • kuam (
  • nal (not)
  • póvaud (because, since, for [obs./formal])
  • jíer (that)
  • bélam (though)
  • toutbélam (although)
  • jed (where)
  • zatim (whereas)
  • dókud (unless)
  • jemp (when)
  • prev (before)
  • áprev (after)
  • dũrtemp (while)
  • áprevtemp (since – from the time that...)
  • dẽrkíer (whereof – of what/which)
  • dẽrkíen (whereof – of whom)


Depending on the word, interjections either remain unchanged from their root forms, or add an -(a)t to them. Examples include véyat (look!), dez (say), hinvéyat (now see here!), hin (here), han (there), réshan (an expression of surprise), bouf (an expression of annoyance or dismay), and blek (signifying disgust; equivalent to English yuck).

Special classes



Relformaiké's number system is akin to those of Romance languages:

  • 0 - naul (zero)
  • 1 - oan (one)
  • 2 - touv (two)
  • 3 - trig (three)
  • 4 - ket (four)
  • 5 - kin (five)
  • 6 - sist (six)
  • 7 - sep (seven)
  • 8 - oat (eight)
  • 9 - nev (nine)
  • 10 - detz (ten)
  • 100 - sent (hundred)
  • 1,000 - kílog (thousand)
  • 1,000,000 - oanard (million)
  • 1,000,000,000 - kílogard (billion)
  • 1,000,000,000,000 - oantéran (trillion)
  • 1 × 1015 - kílöttéran (quadrillion)
  • 1 × 1018 - oanexan (quintillion)
  • 1 × 1021 - kílogexan (sextillion)
  • 1 × 1024 - oanyotan (septillion)
  • 1 × 1027 - kílogyotan (octillion)
  • 1 × 1030 - oanardyotan (nonillion)
  • 1 × 1033 - kílogardyotan (decillion)

The number system is addition- and multiple-based, resulting in the likes of detzoan (11), detśtouv (12), detśtrig (13), detśkin (15), touvdetz (20), touvdetzoan (21), trigdetz (30), ketdetz (40), kindetz (50), sepdetzoat (78), senttouvdetśnev (129), kinsenttrigdetśtrig (533), touvkílöddetśsist (2016), kindetśtrigkílog (53,000), sentketdetśkílog (140,000), and so forth. Complex numbers such as oanard-touvsenttrigdetśketkílog-kinsentsistdetśsep (1,234,567) are hyphenated.


Ordinal forms are denoted by the -tem suffix, as in oantem (first/1st), touvtem (second/2nd), trigtem (third/3rd), detśsisttem (sixteenth/16th), touvdetśnevtem (twenty-ninth/29th), and senttem (hundredth/100th). Values up to 31st (trigdetzoantem) are used in expressing simple calendar dates.


Fractions are expressed with the -tim suffix, as in touvtim (one half/½), trigtim (one third/⅓), kettim (a quarter/¼), oattim (one eight/⅛), detśtim (a tenth / 1/10), and senttim (a hundredth / 1/100). If higher than one, then the dividend precedes the divisor in forms such as touve trigtim (two-thirds/⅔), trige kettim (three-quarters/¾), kine ńoattim (five-eighths/⅝), sèpe detśtim (seven-tenths / 7/10), and detśtouve touvdetśnevtim (twelve in 29 / 12/29).


Estimated and approximate values are expressed with the -tam suffix, most notably in detśtouvtam (a dozen; about twelve). Other examples include senttam (about 100), trigdetśkílöttam (some 30,000), and oanardtam (roughly a million).

The -proxim suffix, meaning "near(ly)"/"almost"/"close to" in location-based expressions, is also used for numbers: ketdetśproxim (nearly 40), detśkinsentproxim (almost 150), sistkílöpproxim (close to 6,000).


Decimals can either be expressed with single numbers, or in fractions denoted by 10 to the nth power (10n). Thus, a number such as 0.421876 can be written as either naul punkt ket-touv-oan-oat-sep-sist (as in English), or ketsenttouvdetzoankílog-oatsentsepdetśsiste oanardtim (421,876/1,000,000). Similarly, 4.21876 = ket punkt touv-oan-oat-sep-sist or kèteň ed detzoanmil-oatsentsepdetśsiste sentmiltim (421,876/100,000).


As in English, the dictation of years is split between the first and last duos of numbers, so that 1789 becomes detśsep oatdetśnev; 1854, detzoat kindetśket; and 1945, detśnev ketdetśkin. If referring to 2000 or later, then something like 2006 can be interpreted as either touvkílogsist or touvdetz naulsist. Similarly, 2016 becomes touvkílöddetśsist or touvdetz detśsist, and 2020 = touvkílöttouvdetz or touvdetz touvdetz. (The last example is a rare example of reduplication in Relformaiké.)

Telephone numbers are also recited by their digits. For example, 555-7824 = kin-kin-kin sep-oat-touv-ket, and 867-5309 = oat-sist-sep kin-trig-naul-nev.


Relformaiké uses the -raz- affixoid to denote multiples of given numbers. Placed before a number, it corresponds to English "x-fold" or "times x", as in raśketu (fourfold, times four); raśsepu (sevenfold); razoatu (eightfold); razdetzu (tenfold); and raśsepdetśsepu (seventy-sevenfold).

As a suffix, -raz- also forms multiples of numbers, such as oanrazé (single); touvrazé (double); trigrazé (triple); ketrazé (quadruple); kinrazé (quintuple); and detzrazé (decuple).


Relformaiké's words for arithmetic operators are sog (plus/+), moin (minus/-), raz (times/×), pódel (divided by/÷), and adal (equal/=).


Days and months

Words for days of the week, and months of the year, are formed by placing deit (week) or masin (month) before the number.

  • deitoane (Sunday)
  • deittouve (Monday)
  • deittrige (Tuesday)
  • deitkète (Wednesday)
  • deitkine (Thursday)
  • deitsiste (Friday)
  • deitsèpe (Saturday)
  • masinoane (January)
  • masintouve (February)
  • masintrige (March)
  • masinkète (April)
  • masinkine (May)
  • masinsiste (June)
  • masinsèpe (July)
  • masinoate (August)
  • masinnève (September)
  • masindetze (October)
  • masindetzoane (November)
  • masindetśtouve (December)


Numerical dates are written in either British (29/9/2016) or American (9/29/2016) form, and are fully written out in this matter: le touvdetśnevtime stel masinnève, touvkílöddetśsiste (the 29th of September 2016).


All interrogative words in Relformaiké begin with the letter k, and correspond to a core morpheme.

Word Parent morpheme English meaning Concept
ked sted where(by) location-related
kédaup sted whither location-related
kédint sted wherein location-related
kednível sted whence location-related
kemp temp when time
kíen -íen who person
kíeni- -íen whom person
kíenoz- -íen whose person
kíer -íer what/which thing
kíerkout kout how much cost
kíerpir -íer wherefore specific reason
kíersaum saum how much; how many amount, quality
kíertemp -íer at what time time (on a clock)
kíerwan -íer whereby, wherewith means, instrument
kópaur ópaur whether either...or...
kóvaud póvaud why reason
kówan wan how, wherein manner


With Esperanto, L.L. Zamenhof managed to compile a table of correlatives; the Relformaiké equivalents are presented in this replica.

Concept Category
Question (?) Indication
Quality kíer (what) solch (what/such a...!) zanūnoz (some kind of) toutesen (every kind) nidesen (no kind of)
Reason kóvaud (why) ẽrgim (therefore, so) póvaudunpir (for some reason) póvaudtoutpir (for all reasons) póvaudnïppir (for no reason)
Time kemp (when) pétemp (then) untemp (sometime) touttemp (always) nïttemp, nidsempru (never)
Place ked (where) hin/han (here/there) unsted (somewhere) toutsted (everywhere) nidsted (nowhere)
Manner kówan (how) esinwan (thus) unkóset (somehow) toutkóset (in every way) nïkkóset (in no way; no-how)
Association kíenoze (whose) esiníenoze/esaníenoze (this one's/that one's) uníenoze (someone's) toutíenoze (everyone's) nidíenoze (no one's)
Thing kíer (what) esin/esan (this/that) unēsen (something) toutēsen (everything) nidēsen (nothing)
Amount kíersaum (how much) esanmenit (that much) un (some) tout (all of it) nidun (none)
Individual kíen (who) esinien/esaníen (this one/that one) uníen (someone) toutíen (everyone) nidíen (no one)

Relformaiké also has its own correlative hierachy, shown below:

Concept Deixis Pronoun Parent morpheme(s)
Proximal Medial Distant Question (?) Relative
Distance proxim proxam proxaum kíerproxem jíerproxem prox*m
Where (Location) hin han haun ked jed h*n/sted
What (Subject/Object) esin esan esaun kíer jíer zan/-íer
Who (Person) esiníen esaníen esauníen kíen jíen -íen
When (Time) nout pétemp näppétemp kemp jemp nout/temp
Why (Reason/Cause) esinpóvaud esanpóvaud esaunpóvaud kóvaud jóvaud póvaud
How (Manner/Method/Way) esinwan esanwan esaunwan kówan jówan wan


As with nouns, all words classified as determiners end in -o, -a, or -e.

  • Both articles (l- and un-)
  • Demonstratives (esine/esane [this/that], esaune [yon])
  • Possessive pronouns (e.g. moz-, toz-, lútroz-)
  • Numerals before nouns (oane, touve, trige, kète, kine, oate, detze, kindetze, sente, mile, oanarde)
  • Quantifiers (algune [any], menite [much/many], peuve [few], kadane [several], unés [some], touttouve [both], toute [every/all])
  • Distributive words (sháké [each])
  • Interrogatives kière and kíenoze

Word formation

Relformaiké is an agglutinative language capable of producing words of various lengths, and with various inflections and derivations. As such, one can make new words out of given roots and end markers.

Formation rules

  1. Words are normally formed as in English and the Romance languages.
    • Nouns end in -e if the subject is inanimate or neuter; -o if masculine; or -a if feminine.
      • vend- (sell) + kaz- (house) + -e (neuter marker) = vendkaze (store, shop; literally "selling-house")
      • livr- (book) + álen- (borrow) + kaz- (house) + -íen (someone from/working at) + -a (feminine marker) = livrálenkazíena (female librarian; literally "female worker at a book-borrowing house")
      • eskũr- (squirrel) + -et (diminutive - young creature) + -o (masculine marker) + -s (plural marker) = eskũretos (boy squirrels)
    • Verbs end with -ar in the infinitive, -at in the indicative, and so forth.
      • vev- (live) + -ar (infinitive) = vévar (to live; to be alive). To aid in pronunciation, the e is marked with an acute (‘) as in French.
  2. Emphasis is placed on the last main root (marked below in bold) in any valid combination.
    • ad- (to) + ven- (come) + -at (indicative) = advenat (SBJ arrives)
    • martel- (hammer) + -wan (instrumental marker) + -u (adverb marker) = martelwanu (with [the help of] a hammer)
  3. Roots that start with a bound suffix and end with a bound prefix are not permitted, and vice versa.
  4. Pronouns only use the affixes allocated in their declension system, along with -íen (in phrases such as Sif mé tíenaid... [If I were you...]).
  5. Combinations consisting only of pronouns may be used to create different words. For instance, mit (send) would otherwise stand for m-i-t- (I-IFX-you), which is ungrammatical itself.
  6. The definite-article root l- can only be followed by the gender plus plural markers, and cannot be conjugated as a verb nor combine with another root.

Example 1: vey

Words in Relformaiké can be formed from existing morphemes based on attribute, thus reducing the need for different roots when necessary. This chart, dealing with the inanimate root vey- ("see"), demonstrates the language's derivational versatility.

Word Affix(es) Meaning
Word Affix(es)
Verbs (with infinitive -ar)
véyar see, watch, view
nalvéyar nal- not see/notice (something) verb negator
nïvveyábilar nid-R-ábil be blind not + see + able to
prevvéyar prev- foresee, preview before
évitvéyar évit- ignore, disregard avoid
advéyar ad- look at, admire at something/someone
äuvvéyar aup- face (something/someone), look toward(s) toward(s)
vivéyar v-i- visit go + interfix
nävvéyar nad- stare intensifier
peuvvéyar peuv- glance a little
intäuvvéyar int-aup- peer (at) in + towards (into)
tranzvéyar tranz- scan through
wegvéyar tin- shun off/away from
Nouns (with neuter -e)
vèye sight
veyábile -ábil vision able to...
véyaine -aine insight the result of...
prevvèye prev- foresight, preview before
févèye fé- outlook future tense marker
véyiène -íen watcher, looker, seer someone who...
véyière -íer eye something that does...
nïvveyábile nid-R-ábil blindness not + see + able to
malveyábile mal-R-ábil bad vision, poor eyesight bad + see + able to
veystède -sted lookout, vantage point, observatory place
veypaske -pask videotape, videocasette, VHS tape
veytole -tol glasses tool
veytoliène -tol-íen optician tool + occupation
veyíerdauktère -íer-daukter oculist, eye doctor something that does... + doctor for
tranzveytole tranz-R-tol window through + see + tool
verresimveytole ver-resim-R-tol mirror reverse + image + see + tool
proxamveytole proxam-R-tol binoculars far + see + tool
astrelveytole astrel-R-tol telescope star + see + tool
Adjective/Adverb (with i/u)
véyi -i visual
véyu -u visually

Example 2: kaz

This declension chart for the inanimate root kaz- ("house") is another example of Relformaiké's agglutinative nature. The intrafixes -oz-, -ib-, -íbin-, and -u are the language's only bound case markers, while -eun- and -e(s) mark topics and singularity/plurality respectively. The remaining affixes are postpositional suffixoids, each corresponding to cases absent in the language (but nonetheless listed here for convenience).

Case Suffix Derivation Meaning
Absolutive (Singular)
-e kaze (the) house
Absolutive (Plural)
-es kazes (the) houses
Absolutive (Singular Topic)
-eune kazeune as for the house
Absolutive (Plural Topic)
-eunes kazeunes as for the houses
Dative (Singular) -ade kazade (to) the house
Dative (Plural) -ades kazades (to) the houses
Ergative (Singular)[16] -ibe kazibe (the) house
Ergative (Plural)[16] -ibes kazibes (the) houses
Identificative (Singular)[17] -íbine kazíbine (the) house, identified as...
Identificative (Plural)[17] -íbines kazíbines (the) houses, identified as...
Genitive (Singular) -oze kazoze (the) house's
Genitive (Plural) -ozes kazozes (the) houses'
Partitive (Singular) -únète kazúnète part of the house
Partitive (Plural) -únètes kazúnètes part of the houses
Adverbial -u kazu in the manner/way of a house
Instrumental -wan kazwan with (the help of) the house
Utilitive -util kazutil using the house
Comitative/Sociative/Associative -vek kazǐvek (along) with the house
Proprietive -zol kazzol ...with the house (as part of someone's belongings)
Possessive -stel kaśstel associated with the house
Causative -kauz kaśkauz because of/thanks to the house,
for the house's sake
Benefactive -ómist kazómist for (the benefit of) the house,
(dedicated) to the house
Originative -nível kaśnível (originating, coming) from the house (of)
Egressive -äpprem kazäpprem starting from the house (in movement)
Initiative -premad kaśpremad starting from the house (as the source)
Terminative -ósot,
up to the point of the house,
ending up at the house
Locative -ad kazad at the house (of)[18]
-aup kazaup to(wards) the house
Orientative -faizant kazǐfaizant facing the house
Cisative -iskróvinad,
at the left/right side of the house
Apudessive -proxim kaśproxim near/next to the house, by the house
Apudlative -proximad kaśproximad at the vicinity of the house
Apudallative -proximaup kaśproximaup towards the vicinity of the house
Pertingent -tang kaśtang touching the surface of the house
Adessive/Superessive -iak kazíak on the surface of the house
Superlative -iakad kazíakad atop the surface of the house; on the roof
Altessive -ault kazault above the house
Transitive -tranz kaśtranz through the house
Prolative -korttranz kaśkorttranz along the house
Inessive -int kazint in the house
Inessive/Illative -intad kazintad within the house, inside the house
Lative/Illative -intaup kazintaup into (in towards) the house
Ablative -fir kazǐfir outside the house
Elative -firv kazǐfirv off the house, out of the house
Delative -weg kazweg off (the surface of) the house
Subessive -baz kazǐbaz below the surface of the house,
underneath the house
Sublative -bazad kazǐbazad at the bottom of the house; in the basement
Abessive -sin kaśsin without the house; homeless
Selective -oanstel kazoanstel one of the houses
Inclusive -ausin kazausin including the house
Immediate -oantem kazoantem first the house
Interessive/Intrative (Dual) -prolad kaśprolad between the (two) houses
Intertransitive (Dual) -proltranz kaśproltranz in between the two houses
Interessive/Intrative (Plural) -mazintad kaśmazintad among the houses
Intertransitive (Plural) -maśtranz kaśmaśtranz going amidst the houses
Contessive -mazint kaśmazint among the houses, amidst the houses
Distributive -shak kaśshak per house
Exclusive -seul kaśseul only the house
Aversive/Evitative -évit kazévit avoiding the house
Substitutive -pótal kaśpótal instead of the house, rather than the house
Authoritative -sélon kaśsélon according to the house
Essive -nand kaśnand as a house
Equative -leiv kazleiv equal to (like) the house, resembling the house
Identical -adal kazadal the same as the house
Comparative -kuam kaśkuam ( than the house; (as ...) as the house
Formal -simil kaśsimil like the house
Referential -prin kaśprin about the house; concerning the house
Ornative -éfódaik kazéfódaik endowed/equipped with a house,
provided a house (by a donor)

Example 3: chon

While various natural languages give different terms to various animals (depending on age and gender), Relformaiké uses one common root and various affixes to accomplish the same effect; this also applies with various species-associated compounds. Below is an example involving the animate root, chon- (cat).

Relformaiké word English meaning
Masculine Feminine Neuter/Pan-gender Masculine Feminine Neuter/Pan-gender
chono chona choné tom queen cat
choneto choneta chonète kitten, young cat
chonébo chonéba chonèbe newborn/baby kitten
chonleivo chonleiva chonleive feline
chonleiveto chonleiveta chonleivète feline cub, young feline
chonleivébo chonleivéba chonleivèbe newborn/baby feline
vairimchono vairimchona vairimchoné wild cat, feral cat
äussinchono äussinchona äussinchoné stray cat
chonaduo chonadua chonadu to the cat, at the cat
chonétaduo chonétadua chonétadu to the kitten, at the kitten
chonaupuo chonaupua chonaupu towards the cat
chonproximuo chonproximua chonproximu near the cat, next to the cat
chonaultuo chonaultua chonaultu above the cat
chonbazuo chonbazua chonbazu below the cat's feet/paws
Associated terms
chonmanké cat food
chondauné litterbox

Example 4: esper

This chart serves to address and amend the derivational defects in Esperanto, another constructed language; esper-'s definition remains as "hope".

Word Meaning
espère hope
esperi hopeful
esperu hopefully
esperiène one who hopes, a hopeful one
esperar to hope
esperat SBJ hope(s)
esperait! hope!
esperant[19] SBJ is hoping/continues to hope
esperanté[19] that which is hoping/continues to hope
esperantiène[19] someone who is hoping/continues to hope
esperaine the hoping (gerund)
esperaijat about to hope, going to hope
esperaijátiène someone who is about to hope
esperaik hoped (past participle)
esperavant having hoped
esperaiké that which is hoped
espereuzi full of hope
esperanfeli hope-prone
piresperar to hope for
piresperat SBJ hope(s) for
piresperant SBJ is hoping for/continues to hope for
piresperanté that which is hoping for/continues to hope for
piresperantiène someone who is hoping for/continues to hope for
piresperaijat about to hope for, going to hope for
piresperaijátiène someone who is about to hope for (something)
piresperaik hoped for
piresperavant having hoped for
piresperaiké that which is hoped for
Esperlinge Esperanto (literally "language of hope")
Esperlingparliène someone who speaks Esperanto
Esperlingdoseliène teacher of Esperanto
Esperlinglẽrniène student of Esperanto
Esperlingiziène Esperanto translator
Esperlingómistiène Esperanto devotee/fan

Example 5: mairit

Below is a comparison between Relformaiké and Novial, an alternative to Esperanto. Novial was devised by Danish linguist Otto Jespersen in the late 1920s; this sample is taken from his 1928 work, An International Language, with variations of mari/mairit-/marry marked in bold.[20]

Novial Relformaiké English
Li pastoro ha mari Paul e Anna. Paul ha mari se a Anna. Les blid mari yer; dunke les es nun marit. Paul es Annan marito, e la es li marita de Paul. Anna esed charmanti kom marienda. After li mario li du marites departad a Paris por li mari-voyaje. Nus espera ke li mariteso sal es felisi. Lo pastoro mairitinzavat Paulo sog Anya. Paulo mairítavat Anya. Lutré pébat mairitaik prevdeitu; ńẽrgim lútré noutu mairitaikat. Paulo bat Anyoza mairitíeno, sog luma bat Paulozo mairitíena. Anya pébat charmanti nand mairitaijatíena. Áprev le mairité, les touve mairitiènes peräuvvat Párize dũr zanozé mairitvaine. Nútr'esperat le mairitide fébat froleuzi. The clergyman has married Paul and Anna. Paul has married Anna. They were married yesterday; thus they are now married. Paul is Anna's husband, and she is Paul's wife. Anna was charming as bride. After the wedding the married couple left for Paris on their wedding-trip. We hope the marriage (state of being married) will be happy.
Note Note:


Structure basics

Relformaiké's default word order, like that of English, is Subject–verb–object (SVO). This sentence is typical of the SVO structure:

SámoS pémankatV ouranjóvètes.O (Sam ate oranges.)

Many natural languages possess a Subject–object–verb (SOV) pattern; in Relformaiké, this leads to something like

SámoS ńouranjóvètesO pémankat.V

which appears illogical and confusing; some may assume it was Sam's oranges who did all the eating, not Sam himself. To resolve this, the ergative marker -ib- is employed between the root and the end marker, resulting in:

SámiboS ńouranjóvètesO pémankat.V

Owing to Relformaiké's agglutinative capacities, the last two words can resolve into a compound verb that translates into "orange-eating". In the first two examples, pémankat is a transitive verb; here, the resulting form is intransitive since no object follows it.

SámoS perouranjóvetmankat.V

In this case, the subject is an absolutive proper noun that retains its original form, and the past tense marker pé- assumes its pre-vowel form of per-.

Another syntax pattern, Object–subject–verb (OSV), is associated with Yoda of the Star Wars saga; otherwise, this is extremely rare in natural languages as a default order. Nonetheless, English uses it from time to time, as can Relformaiké in certain situations like this one:

OuranjóvètesO SámoS pémankat.V (Oranges Sam ate.)

When OSV sentences use articles, the result tends to be somewhat inorganic. This example is also acceptable, but is discouraged:

Le livréO l'aumbraS pélezat.V (The woman read the book.)

English employs a similar setup, Verb–object–subject (VOS), in various humorous expressions. Relformaiké also accommodates it in certain cases, such as:

SkríbatV une livré,O l'aumbreto.S (Wrote a book, the boy.)

or even more accessibly:

SkríbatV une livré,O ńesan'aumbreto.S (Wrote a book, that boy.)

Relformaiké requires a comma plus an article, determiner, or demonstrative (esin/esan) before the subject in VOS statements, or else they could appear rather unnatural as well.

PémankatV ouranjóvètes,O esane Sámo.S (He's eating oranges, that Sam.) (Note that esane does not decline into esano, as the subject's identity is not yet immediately known.)

The regular subject and object can be reversed, leading to an Object–verb–subject (OVS) setup like:

OuranjóvètesO pémankatV Sámo.S (Oranges ate Sam.)

Unmarked ergatively, this reads like an excerpt from a science-fiction story. Again, -ib- must be used to distinguish the subject, as in:

OuranjóvètesO pémankatV Sámibo.S

which is equivalent to the passive statement "Oranges were eaten by Sam." Pronouns ending in -io/-ia/-ié are exempt from this rule, as demonstrated in the next section.

As in French, the uncommon Verb–subject–object (VSO) is used to form question statements in Relformaiké; otherwise, it is not recommended in practice.

PémankatV SámoS límaunes?O (Did Sam eat lemons?)

If pronouns are involved, they are attached to the verb with a hyphen:

Pévivéyat-téVS mio?O (Did you visit me?)

If the object begins with a vowel, then ń- is added for elision purposes.

Pévivéyat-lumaVS ńustrié?O (Did she visit you?)
PémankatV SámoS ńouranjóvètes?O (Did Sam eat oranges?)

Advanced structure

With subjects and objects

Pronouns only

Standard Relformaiké nouns and pronouns are unchanged in the nominative and absolutive forms. The accusative is only used in pronouns, as seen in the following variations of the simple sentence "She loves him". (Again, the ń- is placed on vowel-initial words if end vowels follow them.)

LumaS ńaimatV lumio.O
LumaS lumioV ńaimat.O (= She him loves.)
LumioO lumaS ńaimat.V (= Him she loves.)
LumioO ńaimatV luma.S (= Him loves she.)
AimatV lumioO luma.S (= Loves him she.)
Aimat-lumaVS lumio?O (Does she love him? = Loves she him?)
Subject pronoun, object noun

If the subject remains a pronoun but the object is a noun, the ergative marker is not needed. Here, "She loves him" becomes "She loves the man", and luma is the same as before:

LumaS ńaimatV l'aumbro.O
LumaS l'aumbroO ńaimat.V (= She the man loves.)
L'aumbroO lumaS ńaimat.V (= The man she loves.)
L'aumbroO ńaimatV luma.S (= The man loves she.)
AimatV l'aumbro,O luma.S (= Loves the man, she.)
Aimat-lumaVS l'aumbro?O (Does she love the man? = Loves she the man?)
Subject noun, object pronoun

The reverse occurs in sentences such as "The lady loves him"; here, lumio is clearly distinguished as the accusative.

L'aumbraS ńaimatV lumio.O
L'aumbraS lumioO ńaimat.V (= The lady him loves.)
LumioO l'aumbraS ńaimat.V (= Him the lady loves.)
LumioO ńaimatV l'aumbra.S (= Him loves the lady.)
AimatV lumio,O l'aumbra.S (= Loves him, the lady.)
AimatV l'aumbraS lumio?O (Does the lady love him? = Loves the lady him?)
Nouns only

Relformaiké exhibits split-ergative capabilities when both a sentence's subject and object are standard nouns, thus demanding the ergative marker when necessary. (See also the examples involving "Sam ate oranges" above.)

L'aumbraS ńaimatV l'aumbro.O (The woman loves the man.)
L'aumbribaS l'aumbroO ńaimat.V (= The woman the man loves.)
L'aumbroO ńaimatV l'aumbriba.S (The man is loved by the woman./The woman loves the man.)
AimatV l'aumbraS l'aumbro?O (Does the woman love the man?)
L'aumbroS ńaimatV l'aumbra.O (The man loves the woman.)
L'aumbriboS l'aumbraO ńaimat.V (= The man the woman loves.)
L'aumbraO ńaimatV l'aumbribo.S (The woman is loved by the man./The man loves the woman.)
AimatV l'aumbroS l'aumbra?O (Does the man love the woman?)

With indirect objects

Below is another example of SVO in Relformaiké:

AnyaS vendatV (le) fáloave.O (Anne sells [the] bread.) (As in English, use of le [the] before the object is optional.)

When indirect objects are involved, -ad is placed in the word referring to the receiver:

AnyaS donatV l'aumbretadoI (le) fáloave.O (Anne gives the boy [the] bread.)
AnyaS donatV le chonadeI (le) leche.O (Anne gives the cat [the] milk.)

If the object precedes the indirect, then either -ad is used standalone:

AnyaS donatV (le) fáloaveO ńad l'aumbreto.I (Anne gives [the] bread to the boy.)
AnyaS donatV (le) lecheO ńad le choné.I (Anne gives [the] milk to the cat.)

or the case-converted word becomes an adverbial phrase:

AnyaS donatV (le) fáloaveO ńaumbretaduo.AdvP (Anne gives [the] bread to the boy.) (The -u precedes the gender marker in masculine or feminine dative nouns.)
AnyaS donatV (le) laktéO chonadu.AdvP (Anne gives [the] milk to the cat.)

With appositive phrases

Apposition involves the use of two phrases, one of which serves to identify the other. For example:

Montserrat,S a volcanic island in the Caribbean...A

Here, Montserrat is the antecedent subject, and volcanic island... is the appositive phrase describing it. In Relformaiké, the -ib- marks the subject for ergative emphasis:

Maunzerátibe,S ńune voalkanif'insule ńint le Karibine...A

When the appositive phrase refers to an occupation or role, -ib- is still used:

Moza RíantiboS lo JoalíenoA (My Father the Hero, title of a 1991 French comedy and its 1994 U.S. remake)

This example is similar to those in the previous section; again, note the use of the ergative.

Anyiba,S moza síbla,A vendaikatV (le) fáloave.O (Anne, my sister, buys [the] bread.)

This sentence makes use of both apposition and indirect objects:

Lumiba,S ńuna kárini lapineta,A pédonatV zanoza ríantadaI ńunes zanahaurés.O (She, a kind rabbit girl, gave her mother some carrots.)

When the appositive phrase describes the object, -ib- marks the subject of the statement:

LumibaS péstretatV zanoza ríanta,O ńuna fami kantíena.A (She met her [own] mother, a famous singer.)

This rule also takes effect in questions such as:

Dúbitat-tibéVS mia,O la joalrákeni krikítíena vosinu?A (Are you doubting me, the best cricket player around?)

-ib- also represents English both in sentences such as:

Ríkibo ńed Nanziba teśhoulvat eskolaupu shakdeitu. (Both Rick and Nancy run to school every day.)

In certain sentences with at least two subjects or objects, one must use the -íbin- intrafix (or identificative marker) to tell the apposition apart from other subjects. In an English sentence such as:

She, the queen, and several others were going.

it is hard to tell whether "she" refers to the queen or someone else. In Relformaiké, this resolves to:

Luma, la regíena, ńed kadanótriènes pévant.

At face value, the "luma" refers to someone else who is not the queen. If she really is the queen, one can prevent ambiguity by saying:

Lumíbina la regíena ńed kadanótriènes pévant. (= She [identified as the queen] and several others were going.)

This is helpful in more complex scenarios, such as:

Lumíbino, ńuno toujíeno, ńed lumíbina, ńun'aimskríbíena, pémairítaijat. (He, an adventurer, and she, a romance writer, were about to marry.)

-íbin- is also employed in cases where English of, and French/Spanish de, stand for "also known/named as":

L'ũrbíbineS Chíkágo...A (The city of Chicago...)
Le voalkanif'insulíbineS Maunzerate...A (The volcanic island of Montserrat...)
Note Note:
Relformaiké's use of the ergative before the appositive was inspired by the appositive case example in the grammar of Nåmúþ, a fictional constructed language constituting part of the Akana universe. Among natural languages, Basque provides some specimens; see "Examples (1943) and (1944)" in Hualde and de Urbina (2003), p. 804

See also the notes on apposition in Rick Harrison's grammar of constructed language Vorlin (2006 revision).

The use of -ib- to denote "both" was inspired by the West Greenlandic sample at the Leipzig Glossing Rules page.

With passive voice

While various languages can handle passive statements such as "The biscuit is eaten by Anne", Relformaiké has no exact equivalent for the word by in this context. Natively, a sentence assuming the form of "The subject's doer is the object" is desirable. Here, the subject turns into a possessive word:

Le biskitoze mankièneS batV Anya.O (The biscuit's eater is Anne.) (Here, mankiène does not convert to mankíena; the object's identity is not yet immediately known.)

This can be stated more easily in OVS, resulting in:

Le biskiteO mankatV Anyiba.S (Anne eats the biscuit.)

As passive voice is generally discouraged in some circles, the same sentence can be simply written as Anya mankat le biskite.

When the past participle form of a verb is also a stem, an OVS variant—OV(I)S—also applies:

Les biskitesO vendaikatV Anyada.I (The biscuits are bought by Anne.) (Vend-aik literally means "be sold", and the dative -ad- indicates whom it was sold to. One can further use something like vendkazíeniba [...through the lady shopkeeper] to ergatively indicate the seller.)

With past participles

This example from a late 19th-century edition of McGuffey's Reader demonstrates the use of the past participle:

NedoS mankinzavatPPV la poula.O (Ned has fed the hen.)[21]

With adjectives as object complements

In the English sentence "The cards painted the roses red", the adjective "red" is the object complement. A straightforward Relformaiké translation results in:

Les kartes pépeintat les roazes roubi.

With emphasis placed on the "red", this more succinct variant more or less preserves the original English syntax:

Les kartesS peintwanuAdvP péroubizatV les roazes.O (= The cards, with the help of paint, turned the roses red.)


These four versions of a sentence from the same volume, "The cat is on the mat"[22] (with an indirect object, but none direct), demonstrate Relformaiké's syntactic flexibility:

  1. Le choné bat iak l'alfaumbrète. (Isolating/Analytic, 13 morphemes / 2.6/word)
  2. Le choné ńiakat l'alfaumbrète. (Slightly agglutinating, 11 morphemes / 2.75/word)
  3. Le choné ńalfaumbretiakat. (Agglutinating, 8 morphemes / 2.667/word)
  4. Alfaumbretiakchoné. (Polysynthetic, 5 morphemes in a single word)

Emphasis increases as more affixes combine to modify the root. The first two forms are more or less written as in English, and the third approaches levels seen in Hungarian, Turkish, and Finnish among others. In all three, the emphasis is placed on alfaumbret- and its location thereof.

The last structure is typical of many an indigenous language of the Americas (such as Greenlandic and Central Alaskan Yup'ik in the Eskimo-Aleut family). Here, the focus shifts to choné, the subject of the original English sentence. As glossed, it essentially translates to "carpet-miniature-on_surface-cat-N" (alfaumbr-et-iak-chon-é).



A special intrafix in Relformaiké, -eun- (from Korean eun [은]), serves the same function as the English phrases "speaking of", "as for", "on the subject of", and "when it comes to". In a sentence such as:

Mariya ńaimat lumoza ríanta. (Mary loves her mother.)

the subject can be converted into a topic, resulting in:

Mariyeuna ńaimat lumoza ríanta. (As for Mary, she loves her mother.)

-eun- is also employed when the second half of certain sentences discusses an aspect of the first, as shown in:

Stuveuno Hopps bat un'uspeti zanahaurágrikíeno jíenoz'aunfa voulprembat una pólizíena. (Speaking of Stu Hopps, he's a prosperous carrot farmer whose daughter wants to be a police officer.)
Esindarazeunu, les lẽrniènes kríonat. (Speaking of this class, the students are smart.)


This sentence is a normal example of a negative statement in Relformaiké:

Mé nalperäuvvat le plage. (I didn't go to the beach.)

The nal- negator can also be placed before the subject or object for emphatic focus, resulting in:

Nalmé peräuvvat le plage. (I didn't go to the beach [but someone else did].)
Mé peräuvvat nal le plage. (I didn't go to the beach [but somewhere else].)


Another special intrafix, -uen-, is used in questions for emphasis on the topic or action. For these variants of the statement Peräuvvat-té le plage? (Did you go to the beach?), the focus in the English equivalent is underlined.

Peräuvvuenat-té le plage? (Did you go to the beach?) (The respondee may have done something else there, or just stopped over.)
Peräuvvat-tuené le plage? (Did you go to the beach?) (Some friend of the respondee may have visited instead of them.)
Peräuvvat-té le plaguené? (Did you go to the beach?) (The asker expected the respondee to be there, but the latter may have decided to call it off or change plans.)
Note Note:
These usage examples were inspired by:


Yet another special intrafix, -zeg-, denotes reported statements and indirect speech in sentences. This counterpart to dez- (say) is borrowed from Dutch, and is equivalent to English "they say/it is said (that...)".

  • Lumo pézegat zano félezat le livré. (He said, "I'll read the book.")
  • Une vendaine premzegat noutdeitu. (They say a sale will begin today [literally, "A sale is said to begin today"].)


Relformaiké's equivalent of the English -'s is the genitive case marker, the -oz- intrafix. It is always placed between the root the gender marker in nouns, as in:

Jainoza baule (Jane's ball); mozríantozo kloche (my father's clock); la julgíenoza livrés (the judge's books).

When a possessed object's first letter is a vowel, the ń- is placed directly before it:

mozríantozo ńinsule (my father's island).

This form, traditional of the Romance languages and Esperanto, is still acceptable:

le kaze dẽr lumoza ríablo (the house of her uncle; her uncle's house).

This can be further simplified to

le kaze lumoza ríablozoňi

where a genitive adjective states whom the house belongs to.

The dẽr conjunction combines with the pronoun stems to form possessive-based prefixes before nouns:

esine dẽrmkaze (this house of mine = this in-my-possession house).

If the possessor's gender is stated, then ň is placed between the noun and prefix:

esane dẽrlumaňlivré (that book of hers).

Relformaiké also utilises the rare proprietive case through another intrafix, -zol-. The proprietive denotes an item owned or held by a sentence's referent, and is virtually nonexistent in natural languages outside several indigenous ones from Australia (including Martuthunira and Kayardild).

Mé péstretat l'aumbra móbilardzoli. (I met the lady with the big car.)
Dúbitat-tibé mio, ńun'aumbro solchvalzoli? (Are you doubting me, a man of such worth?)


Only three morphemes in Relformaiké—-oz-, -zol-, and -ad-—exhibit traits of the linguistic phenomenon known as Suffixaufnahme, German for "case stacking".


When two or more subjects are associated with an entity, -oz- tags all of them as "joint possessives" or "compound possessives". If the subjects share the same entity, then the comitative vek conjunction precedes the last subject:

Jaunozo vek Mariyoza pastèle (John and Mary's cake)
Jaunozo, Mariyoza, vek Jósefozo pastèle (John, Mary, and Joseph's cake)

If the subjects have at least one of the entities described, then ed is used instead; the entity noun must be pluralised.

Jaunozo ńed Mariyoza pastèles (John's and Mary's cakes)
Jaunozo, Mariyoza, ńed Jósefozo pastèles (John's, Mary's, and Joseph's cakes)

A similar situation happens with -zol-, as shown in this example:

Luma péstretat un'animaldauktera, Saint-Îvésenäuvvantzoli sepchonzoli móbilzolintu. (She met a lady veterinarian, bound for St. Ives with seven cats in her own car.)


In addition to its normal function as an indirect/dative marker, -ad- can also tag attributes associated with the indirect object of a sentence.

Ma pédonat l'aumbrado Bilbáonníveladi moza drevaudfabrière. (I gave my xylophone to the man from Bilbao.)
Ma pédonat l'aumbrado mũrgsátrokzoladi lumoza vailtenière. (I gave the man with the black hat her suitcase.)
Note Note:
The above examples were inspired by this reply by "Valdeut" (from a March 2016 discussion entitled "Basque's Surdéclinaison") at the zompist bboard.

Quotations and punctuation

Relformaiké is written similarly to English; its quotation marks («», wilémètes) are borrowed from French.

«Kiène lumbat?» pédézat la velaumbra.
«Bat mio, Róbairto,» péverjautat zanoza ńaunfo.
"Who is it?" said the old lady.
"It's me, Robert," replied her son.
«Mo nalperábilat króyar lumé jemp lo julgíeno pédézat, ‹Naule pointes!›» pédézat lo jouvíeno.
"I couldn't believe it when the judge said, 'Nul points!'" said the boy.

Otherwise, its punctuation system remains unchanged.

Lo zẽrdébo rókónat triga velrakis síblas—l'oantema sempritristi, la töuftema joiyeuzámeli, ńed l'aulttema peuvénuyanti.
The fennec kit has three older sisters—one forever sad, another occasionally happy, and the last a slight bore.
Ma nalperaigat lumié, ma shũrat; unótriène péhaizat!
I didn't do it, I swear; someone else did!
Péhanat seuluna bíena mo péfídelábilat: Mísébozo velrákanti doselíena.
There was only one person I could trust: My own aging teacher.
Esane droalat... Esine móbile pékoutat nútrié ńoanarde ńiroaves (€1,000,000)?!
That's funny... This car cost us a million Euros (€1,000,000)?!


Precision is one of Relformaiké's main objectives, in that words and expressions (regardless of length) should be as free of ambiguities and semantic baggage as possible.

p45: Sanity not guaranteed

Commonly cited as one of the longest words in English, pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis—defined as "a disease of the lungs caused by inhaling volcanic silica dust"—is actually a coinage devised by the U.S. National Puzzlers' League in 1935. Consisting of 45 letters (hence the code nickname "p45"), it contains the following morphemes:

  • pneumon (Greek for "lung")
  • ultra
  • microscopic
  • silico-
  • volcanic
  • konis (Greek for "dust")
  • -osis

"p45" is an extension of the more concise term pneumoconiosis (14 letters), whose simpler form is just the nine-letter silicosis. Relformaiké translates it to the 20-letter silíkonkauśnïbbenide, or "illness caused by silicon" (silíkon-kauz-nid-ben-id-e; silicon-thanks_to-not-well-condition-N). Lung disease, on the other hand, is peumaunnïbbenide (peumaun-nid-ben-id-e; lung-not-well-condition-N; 16 letters). An attempt to capture the essence of the original word results in


which is 27 letters—barely more than half the English counterpart's—and seven morphemes (silíkon-kauz-peumaun-nid-ben-id-e) in length.

Also filed under Sesquipedalian

Through derivational and compounding methods, and on the basis of their original definitions, long words in various languages can receive Relformaiké equivalents.

  • A well-known English example, the 28-letter antidisestablishmentarianism, means "a movement opposing the separation of church and state". This becomes the similarly long
which comprises eight morphemes in total (êklez-pódel-aik-estat-id-ódim-ain-e; church-divide-PST.PTCP-state-QUAL-oppose-GER-N).
  • The 29-letter Latin-based coinage, floccinaucinihilipilification (the act of estimating something as worthless), turns into the 16-letter/six-morpheme
which consists of "val-sin-id-julg-ain-e" (worth-lack_of-QUAL-deem-GER-N).
Note Note:
See also World Wide Words for more information on the terms profiled in the preceding two sections:

To have...or not to have

Consider the following sentence, taken from Wiktionary's entry for "have":

I have no German.

On the surface, it can be interpreted as one of several things:

  1. The speaker has no one from Germany living in their house.
  2. The speaker has no German heritage.
  3. The speaker cannot converse in the German language (the "have" in this example uses the Irish English sense of "speak a language").

Translated straight into Relformaiké, this becomes:

Mé naltenat Alémane.

Since the last word primarily refers to the country (and in some contexts, the language itself), one is led to believe that the speaker is missing the realm of Germany—perhaps as a piece of a map puzzle, or part of a souvenir collection. To clear things up, one can say instead:

Mé naltenat Alémaniènes. (I have no German people.)

Simply put, the speaker is declaring that no German people are at his house, or in his family tree. To be more specific, one can use:

Mé naltenat Alémaniènes mośkazadu/kazad madé. (I have no Germans at my [own] house.) (The speaker is referring to citizens of Germany. Also, note the indirect/dative pronoun at the end of the second form.)
Mé naltenat Alémanníveliènes mośkazadu/kazad madé. (I have no one from Germany at my house.) (The speaker is referring to those who come or hail from Germany, but were not necessarily born there.)

This can also be rendered as:

Aléman(nível)iènes nalmośkazadhábitat/nalhábitat mośkazadu. (No Germans live at my house.)

or the more morphologically complex:


which consists of 10 (or 11) uninterrupted morphemes à la Greenlandic et al. (nal-m-oś-kaz-ad-Aléman-[nível-]hábit-ièn-e-s), and retains the capital letter denoting a proper noun. Owing to their sheer length, these kinds of one-word sentences are all but infrequent in Relformaiké.

When speaking of one's lineage or heritage, this can be used:

Mé sinat Alémannesile./M'Alémannesilsinat. (I am without German lineage/descent. / I have no German ancestors.)

Finally, when referring to fluency, this statement captures the essence of the original Irish usage:

Mé nalparlábilat Alémane/l'Alémanlinge. (I cannot/can't speak German.)

Sample texts

Mé penzat, ẽrgim mé bat.
Renayo Descartes

I think, therefore I am.

—Réné Descartes

Le seulzane nútré boulfoabat, bat le foabeň ilsèbe.
Franklino Delano Roosevelt

The only thing we have to fear, is fear itself.

—Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Jautait nal jíer ustrozé paizeň aigábilat pir ustré...sed jíer ustréň aigábilat pir ustrozé paize.
Jauno F. Kennedy

Ask not what your country can do for you...but what you can do for your country.

—John F. Kennedy

Naumait-mioň Ishmáyelo.
Hẽrmano Melville, Moby-Dick

Call me Ishmael.

—Herman Melville, Moby-Dick

Dũr le prémaine, Díevo péfabrat le Zièleň ed le Taire.
Génésize 1:1

In the beginning, God created the Heaven and the Earth.

—Genesis 1:1

Póvaud Díevo pénadaimat le Taire, jíer Ilo pédonat rindéň Ilozo seuli ríantaik'Aunfo, gían kíenkivéň ïnkkróyat touvRindo nalfémoartat, sed fétenat semprivève.
Jauno 3:16

For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life.

—John 3:16

Saulme 23
Une Saulme praz Daivido.
1 Dómeno bat moz'Ovilhirtíeno; mé nalfésinat.
2 Il'istirinzat mié grenpastũrešiakuň: Il'ódigat mié vidol les nïmmouvāguades.
3 Ilo relnoutat mozé zelmeň: Il'ódigat mié tranz les vẽrdemeuzidjalanes Ilozoňnomkauzu.
4 Sid, bélam mé tranśhoulvat le lúgine dẽr le moarthólège, mé nalféfoabat malé: póvaud To vekat mié; Tozo paulkeň ed Tozo ravdé parígorat mié.
5 To prevvaulmat une mesane faiz mié, proxim mozés malamites: T'oindat mozé képale wan ólaive; mozé kalisteň álouvat.
6 Shũru joalideň ed mẽrzide feráprevat mié toute les deites dẽr mozé vèveň: ed mé ferinthábitat le kaze dẽr Dómeno pirsempru.

Máfeulo 6:9-13
9 ...Nútrozé Ríanto, jíeno bat Zíelintu,
Sákrizi bat Tozo Naume.
10 Tozo Regpaize venaid.
Tozoň entoleň aigaikaid Tairintu,
leiv riné bat Zíelintu.
11 Donait-nútrié noutdeitu nútrozé Deiti Fáloaveň;
12 ed nerelait-nútrié nútrozés malaigés,
dũr nútré nerelat azanes jiène
malaigat proximad nútrié.
13 Ed nalódigait-nútrié malaigaijátaupu,
sed sauvait-nútrié malévitu.
Póvaud Loňtozo bat le Regpaize,
le Pótesteň ed le Gloire,
pirsempruň ed sempru.

Auntemi Artike
Tout'aumbribiènes bat naizaik bomsiniň ed adaliň int dignitéň ed pravés. Iltré bat éfódaik vek raisoneň ed móralsábaineň, ed aupaigaid shákótréň int un'esprite dẽr siblide.

Notes and references

  1. The past participle noun form, and not the past tense form.
  2. 2.0 2.1 A morpheme (or vókabtime in Relformaiké) is the smallest unit of language; the study of morphemes is called morphology.
  3. Unless they are anthropomorphised, in which case the -o/-a endings apply.
  4. Pronounced /d͡ʒ/ if a word-ending "e" follows it.
  5. Comprising 4 roots, 10 affixes, and 1 affixoid; 3 of them are case markers.
  6. See also section 4.1 in "Proposed Guidelines for the Design of an Optimal International Auxiliary Language" by Richard K. Harrison, 2001 (9th draft):
    "The language should be designed so that all compounds can be unambiguously divided into their constituent morphemes, and so that no single morpheme can be mistaken for a combination of several morphemes. Confusion can occur if such auto-analysis is not designed into the language; for example, the Dutch word kwartslagen can mean 'quarter beats' (kwart + slagen) or 'quartz layers' (kwarts + lagen); the Esperanto word sukero might mean 'sugar' (suker + o) or 'a drop of juice' (suk + er + o). While it is true that context can usually indicate which meaning is intended, there is no reason for such morphemic ambiguity to exist in an optimal language design."
  7. Equivalent to English SBJ has PT-VB.
  8. Equivalent to English ...that SBJ VB, or could/would/should.
  9. Equivalent to English ... (is) going to/(is) about to VB.
  10. Also referred to as le Haulande (Holland).
  11. 11.0 11.1 Only used in phrases such as "Ilo bant nïbbóminzaik..." ("He's being held...")
  12. 12.0 12.1 *Baikar is ungrammatical in Relformaiké.
  13. 13.0 13.1 *Baikantar is ungrammatical in Relformaiké.
  14. 14.0 14.1 *Bíamavar is ungrammatical in Relformaiké.
  15. von Möllendorff (1892), p. 10
  16. 16.0 16.1 Only used in certain cases, such as Subject-object-verb (SOV) and Object-verb-subject (OVS) sentences.
  17. 17.0 17.1 Used in certain sentences with two or more subjects/objects.
  18. Cf. French chez.
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 As Justin B. Rye jokes in "Onomastics", "If Esperanto participles were fully regular, the word esperanto would mean a temporary outbreak of hope, and Zamenhof's pen‐name would have been la Doktoro Esperantulo!"
  20. As Jespersen also noted,
    "Ido has here the verb mariajar 'to marry' with the derivatives mariajo or mariajeso 'marriage,' mariajatulo 'married man,' mariajatino 'married woman,' with the variants mariajitulo, mariajitino; mariajo-festo 'wedding'; further, the independent words spozo, spozulo, spozino for husband and wife. - Occ has maritagie, marito, marita, for 'married couple' maritates, for wedding (eheschliessung) maritagie, maritantie, and for 'married state' (ehestand) matrimonie. Novial thus gets off cheaper than either of these languages."
  21. "Lesson VII" in McGuffey (1896), p. 13
  22. "Lesson II" in McGuffey (1896), p. 8