Relformaiké Dictionary:Grammar

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This page is currently a work-in-progress draft, and as such is not complete nor refined yet. Material below is subject to change or improvement over time.

Relformaide, the subject of this Referata wiki, is a constructed auxiliary language inspired by the Romance branch of the Indo-European family, with agglutinative influences throughout. The name "Relformaide" is the language's own word for "reformed",[1] which represents its efforts to reform the Romance languages and amend several defects in their grammar, particularly those related to gender.

Relformaide is written in the standard Latin script employed by English and various other European, American, Austronesian, and indigenous Pan-American and Australian languages. Its alphabet contains all standard letters except C and Q—which are only found in imported surnames—and adds a CH digraph in place of the C.

Thanks to its flexibility, Relformaide can emulate not only its major source languages (English plus the Romance and Germanic families), but also various others from different regions. It is a split-ergative language whose standard word order is Subject–verb–object (SVO). There are no standalone grammatical cases save for the nominative and genitive (possessive) in nouns and pronouns; the accusative in pronouns; and the ergative/unmarked absolutive in certain conditions.

Relformaide consists of several hundred base morphemes, all of which are either free (capable of standing alone as either roots or affixoids) or bound (only found in derivations and inflections).[2] Roots in Relformaide end in consonants (except for s), and are designed and chosen to be free of as much orthographical and semantic conflict as possible. Many are borrowed from various Romance languages, as well as their ancestor Latin; some more are sourced from other Indo-European branches and language families elsewhere.

Among those roots are several dozen adpositions, nearly all of which can also serve as either standalone prepositions, or postpositional mesoclitics attached to the end of a stem. Emphasis is focused on the final major root in any given combination, especially in the case of postpositions. Depending on the circumstances, a Relformaide sentence can consist of several small-to-medium words, or a very long one-word phrase.



  1. Relformaide uses a Latin-based alphabet of 25 letters for its native roots and words, leaving out C and Q (except in imported surnames and terms) and adding a digraph, CH.
  2. The language is spoken as it is written, with monophthongs, diphthongs, and diacritics to assist in the pronunciation, spelling, and marking of words.
  3. It is comprised of free and bound morphemes, which can either serve as roots or affixes, and are used to form words of various lengths and constructs.
    1. Free morphemes are also called Base roots (or Níveltimes), the vast majority of which serve as Core Base roots (Júrekníveltimes). Core Base roots represent concepts found in most natural languages, human cultures, and various fields.
    2. Many bound morphemes also serve as Termisons (Fimättimes)—suffixes which are placed at the end of most words.[3]
  4. The language's morphology and syntax are extremely flexible. In that regard, it can easily emulate the standards of English, as well as various Romance and Germanic languages. Its agglutinative nature also allows users to build long words à la Hungarian, Finnish, Turkish, and others of their ilk. In rare cases, extremely long one-word sentences can rival those occasionally found in the indigenous languages of North America, such as Greenlandic.
  5. Words are head-final—in which the emphasis is placed on the last root in any given combination—while standard sentences are head-initial.
  6. All words are categorised into nine classes: articles, nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, adpositions, conjunctions, and interjections. The first six enable termisons, as does the last one in some cases.
    1. Nouns and pronouns assume gender, depending on whether they are animate (living) or inanimate. Animate subjects and objects end with -o (for masculine/male forms), -a (for feminine/female forms), and -e (for cases where the form's gender is unknown/undetermined, as well as for groups and demonstrative text). Inanimate subjects and objects almost always assume the neuter form;[4] -e is also applied. If articles precede them, then they also assume the noun's gender.
    2. Adjectives and adjectival phrases end with -i; adverbs and adverbial phrases with -u.
    3. Adpositions and conjunctions assume their original root forms.
    4. Interjections can also assume their root forms, or end with -(a)t.
    5. As in English, French, Spanish, and Portuguese, -s is the plural termison. This applies to all articles, nouns, and pronouns, along with instances where adjectives agree with the subsequent plural forms. The remaining parts of speech are never pluralised.
    6. All verbs have -ar as their infinitive ending—the base of a conjugation system that involves -at (for indicative forms), -ant (for the progressive/continuative aspect), -aid (for past participles), and so forth.
    7. Tense is marked with pé- (past), plé- (discontinuous past), fé- (future), and péfé- (future in the past) before roots; the present carries no indication.
  7. Numbers, interrogatives, correlatives, determiners, and affects constitute special classes that span across the parts of speech; determiners end the same way as nouns do.
  8. The nal- prefix expresses negation, and always precedes tense markers. It is also the leftmost possible morpheme of any given word.
  9. Several dozen standalone roots—primarily adpositions—also serve as case mesoclitics before the stems they modify.
  10. A special intrafix, -suel-, is placed between the stem and either a case suffix, verb termison, or -i in complex plural forms.
  11. With the exception of the word class (-o/-a/-e for nouns; -i for adjectives; -u for adverbs) and tense (pé-/plé-/fé-/péfé-) markers, all native morphemes must end in a consonant. Roots cannot end with s, which is reserved as the plural termison.
  12. Base morphemes cannot contain double letters of any sort, but double consonants are permitted in compound forms.
  13. Imported terms (including surnames) are exempt from the previous two rules.
  14. Word order is flexible (with a few caveats); Subject–verb–object (SVO) is the declarative default. Statements in the passive voice assume Object–verb–subject (OVS), where the subject (plus any associated modifiers) utilises the ergative intrafix -ịb- if a noun, or remains unchanged if a pronoun; questions and optative remarks are formed with Verb–subject–object (VSO).
  15. To indicate possession by a referent, the genitive intrafix -oz- is used between the root and the termison. If a complement is directly related to a possessee, then the proprietive marker -zol- is used in certain cases. In complex situations, the adposition dẽr precedes the possessee information.
  16. As in French, quotations in text are enclosed by wilémètes («»); all other punctuation is used as in English et al.



Standard Latin convention, as well as English, possesses an alphabet of 26 letters:

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

In Relformaide, there are 25:

a b ch d e f g h i j k l m n o p r s t u v w x y z

The ch digraph substitutes the c, which is otherwise reserved for imported surnames and terms, as is q. Familiar examples of the two stray letters' use can be found in Cousteau and QWERTY.

Relformaide has no c in its native words, as the letter is better represented by its common phonetic equivalents of k, s, and z. Within imported names, the accented variants of ć (for /k/) and ç (for /s/ and /z/) are optional, resulting in the likes of Ćousteau and Luçiano among other forms.

Initial letters

A native Relformaide word can begin with any of 24 letters, but never x (outside of imports).

a b ch d e f g h i j k l m n o p r s t u v w x y z

Final consonants

There are 19 consonants that roots can end with; the vowels and s are reserved as termisons.

a b ch d e f g h i j k l m n o p r s t u v w x y z



Relformaide is pronounced in much the same way as English, and so are most of its letterals:

Letter Sound Name IPA symbol(s) English example(s) Relformaide example(s)
A ah āhe /a(ː)/, /ɑ/, /æ/ art, cat ábili, kantar
B bay baye /b/ bay bar, besneli
CH chu chude /t͡ʃ/ chat ploché
D dee diefe /d/ delight detze
E ay aye /ɛ/, /aɪ/, /ɜː/ egg, herd resime, évitar, dr
F eff efāye /f/ fair fásili
G gee giefe /ɡ/ go geli
H aych ayche /h/ humble hanu
I ee íviye /i(ː)/, /ɪ/, /ə/ bid síprane, sivinar, plajǐtúgu
J jay jaye /d͡ʒ/ jack plajé
K kay kaye /k/ kennel korte
L ell élide /l/ long lezar
M em émide /m/ milk mólen
N en énide /n/ nest nákole
O oh ōhe /o(ː)/, /oʊ/ more, over óvile, stoaché, stúdiole
P pay paye /p/ pray puerté
R ahr ahre /ɹ/ rest ríante
S ess esète /s/ simmer seristes
T tee tiefe /t/ tote toute
U you youfe /u(ː)/, /ɜː/ use, Tudor, hurt pórule, dũr
V vee vieze /v/ advance vislar
W touvee touvvieze /w/ wink weste
X eks exine /ks/ exit pexine
Y why whye /j/, /i/ yellow, hairy yúkane, fluyière
Z zed zède /z/, /ʒ/ zone zustime, mozé, Aiźa
C* seeta sietane /k/, /s/, /z/ magic, cite
Q* cue kúdane /kw/ quite



Three other digraphs are represented. (Even though sch uses three characters, it comprises two letters in Relformaide—s and ch.)

Combo IPA symbol English example Relformaide example
SH /ʃ/ shilling roshólar
SCH /ʃ/ Schultz nakausche
NG /ŋ/ sing lingaili

Ten triple-consonant clusters, all sibilant, are also permitted to begin words:

Combo IPA symbol English example Relformaide example
Consonant triples
SCHL /ʃl/ schlepping
SCHM /ʃm/ schmaltz
SCHN /ʃn/ schnauzer
SCHR /ʃɹ/ Schroeder
SCHW /ʃw/ Schwartz
SHR /ʃɹ/ Shrove
SKR /skɹ/ scream skríbar
SPL /spl/ splash
SPR /spɹ/ spree kaśprini
STR /stɹ/ strudel strúbar

In addition, the language possesses three monophthongs (vowel pairs represented by single sounds); seven diphthongs (vowel pairs sounded together); two semi-diphthongs (which act as either monophthongs or diphthongs); and seven hiatuses (vowel pairs sounded separately).

Combo IPA symbol(s) English example(s) Relformaide example(s)
AU /ɔ/, /ʌ/ caulk maunde, saume
IE /iː/ Bernie mietire
OU /u/ ghoul bouklar
AI/É /eɪ/ aim Paipo
Î /aɪ/ nice hairîve
OA /oʊ/ foal poartar
OI /ɔɪ/ boil pointe
UA /waː/ squad aguade
UE /wɛ/, /weɪ/ pueblo suerté
UI /wiː/ squid kuibiène
EA /ɪə/, /iː/ appeal gleazar
EU /(j)uː/ feud jeure
AO /a.o/ aorta, chaos
EI /eɪ.ɪ/ deity leiv
EO /eɪ.o/ eon déoze
ÍE /iː.eɪ/ Diego veyre, póliezíena
IO /i(ː).o/ lion raidiole
IU /i(ː).u/ diurnal
OE /o(ː).ɛ/ poem pze


The consonant and vowel inventories are almost the same as those of English. (Corresponding graphemes are bolded.)

Phonemes Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m [m] n [n] ng [ŋ]
Stop p [p] b [b] t [t] d [d] j [d͡ʒ] ch [t͡ʃ] k [k] ɡ [g]
Fricative f [f] v [v] s [s] z [z] ź [ʒ] sh [ʃ] h [h]
Approximant l [l] r [ɹ] y [j] w [w]
Vowels Front Central Back
Close i/í/ie/ea [i(ː)] u/ú [u(ː)]
ou [u]
Near-close i [ɪ]
Mid e [ɛ] ǐ [ə] /ũ [ɜː] o/ó [o(ː)] au [ʌ/ɔ]
Open a [æ] a/á [a(ː)] ar [ɑ]


Relformaide has five uniliteral termisons, of which four (a, i, o, and u) are always pronounced in full at the end of words. Depending on the word, e is either pronounced (as denoted with é) or left silent, as shown in these tables for the roots ed- and ótr-.

Example 1: ed- (young/youth)
Form IPA English meaning
ède ɛd youngster, kid, lad, tyke
edo ɛ.do boy
eda ɛ.dɑ girl
edi ɛ.di young
edu ɛ.du youngly (Rare)
Example 2: ótr- (other/different)
Form IPA English meaning
ótré oː.tɹeɪ another one
ótro oː.tɹo another one (masculine)
ótra oː.tɹɑ another one (feminine)
ótri oː.tɹi different
ótru oː.tɹu differently


In most Relformaide words, stress falls on the final or lone syllable, and also with long vowels (represented by grave accents): kaine (dog), touvarde (two million), pla (beach), koulibré (hummingbird), telar (deceive/trick).

In some words like ebane (raccoon), the focus is on the syllable with the accent/long vowel. Many causative verbs exhibit stress before the -inz suffix used to form them, as in frólinzar (enlighten).


In Relformaide, a variety of diacritics are used to represent various sounds and assist in letter-marking. As in French, these variants are not part of the language's standard alphabet.

Type Letters Function
a e i o u c f g n s v z
Acute á é í ó ú ć ń ś ź
  • Marks the natural sounds of the vowels at the end of syllables.
  • In the case of c, denotes the /k/ sound in imported surnames and terms.
  • In the case of n, attached to a vowel-initial word after a preceding vowel; cf. Ancient Greek's "movable nu".
  • In the case of s, used to mutate the root-final z before affixes starting with ch, h, k, m, n, p, t, or another s.
  • In the case of z, denotes the /ʒ/ (zh) sound in Aiźa (Asia).
Grave è Only used when e precedes a consonant and another e at the end of some words (e.g. aumbrète [young human]).
Breve ă ĕ ĭ ŏ ŭ Distinguishes certain root formations from other valid combinations.
Circumflex â ê î Indicates that the vowel is pronounced exactly like its English literal (/eɪ/, /iː/, /aɪ/).
Macron ā ē ī ō ū Signifies the start (or sometimes end) of syllables in some words.
Tilde ũ Denotes the /ɜː/ sound found in English words such as herd and hurt.
Umlaut ä ë ï ö ü Placed on the first unaccented vowel of certain roots, whose last letter then becomes the next morpheme's first consonant in certain compounds.
Underdot Distinguishes root-final -ar/-at/-et/-i-b &c. from their regular conjugation/affix counterparts. Found in the ergative case marker -ịb, and in words such as chauklạite (chocolate) and Magyạre (Hungary).
Caron ǐ ň The ň connects gendered genitives in complex compounds like lumozoňkloche (clock of his); the ǐ buffers difficult consonant clusters.
Cedilla ç Used to mark the sound of /s/ (and sometimes /z/) in imported surnames and terms.
Dot ġ Only used to mutate and soften the root-final j before another g (/g/) in compounds.
Hook ƒ ѵ In compounds, the ƒ is used to mutate the root-final v before h, s, t, z, or another f; ѵ is borrowed from the Cyrillic script, and transforms f in front of another v.



With 25 letters in its alphabet, the maximum number of possible two-letter combinations in Relformaide words and syllables is 625 (25²).

  1. Unlike most natural languages, and in similar fashion to Lojban's gismu, Relformaide does not allow double letters (e.g. bb, dd, ee, ff, nn, ss) in its base roots.
    1. Double vowels only occur in surname imports, as in Boorman and Deere.
    2. Double consonants are permitted in native compounds, such as addez (tell; ad-, to object + dez-, say).
  2. In compounds, the final z of a root becomes ś before ch, h, k, m, n, p, s, and t.
  3. Similarly, v becomes ƒ before ch, s, t, z, or another f; f turns into ѵ before another v.
  4. The letter x cannot begin any word apart from surname imports (most notably Xavier); nor can roots end with s (the plural marker).
  5. Among consonant-only bigrams ending with x, only lx/nx/rx/yx are allowed within words; the rest are disallowed outside imports.
  6. chh is not permitted in base roots, but permitted in compounds and imports. Also following this rule are homophones gh (= f/g), ph (= f), th (= d/f), rh (= r), wh (= w), wr (= r), sw (= sui) (only in imports), and tw (= tui).
  7. kh is conditionally permitted in base roots like lakh (an Indian term for 10,000); otherwise, it turns into k.
  8. These pairs are strictly prohibited:
    1. xk/xs/xz (within standalone roots; = xik/xis/xiz in compounds)
    2. sz/ae (except in imports)

After excluding double vowels aa/ee/ii/oo/uu and double consonants ss/xx, one is left with 618 (25² - 7) possible bigrams in native roots. From here, the remaining number depends on various factors as shown in the table below:

Elimination rule Combos left
Base Compound
At start Within At end At start Within At end
Rest of double consonants (bb, dd, ll, tt, &c.) 600 600 600 600 618 600
Pairs xk, xs, and xz 597 597 597 597 618 597
Rest of x-initial pairs (e.g. xd, xg, xn, xt) 576 576 576 576 618 576
sz 575 575 575 575 617 575
Pairs chh, gh, ph, rh, th, and wh 569 569 569 569 617 569
hch/vch/zch 566 566 566 566 617 566
Rest of C + ch pairs (except sch) 552 566 566 552 617 566
l/r + b/d/f/g/j/v 540 566 566 540 617 566
Rest of C + b/d/f/g/j/v pairs 444 566 470 444 617 470
lx/nx/rx/yx 440 566 470 440 617 470
Rest of C + x pairs 425 551 455 425 602 455
Rest of C + s/C + z pairs 390 551 420 390 602 420
sh 390 551 419 390 602 419
Rest of C + h pairs (except kh) 380 551 409 380 602 409
lk/rk 378 551 409 378 551 409
Rest of C + k pairs (except sk) 363 551 394 363 602 394
C + l pairs (except [b/f/g/k/p/s]l) 351 551 394 351 602 394
C + m/n/p/t pairs (except sm/sn/sp/st) 283 551 394 283 602 394
C + r pairs (except [b/d/f/g/k/p/t]r) 272 551 394 272 602 394
C + w pairs (except zw) 255 551 394 255 602 394
ae 254 550 393 254 601 393
ih, iy, and uy 251 550 393 251 601 393
iu and oe 249 550 391 249 601 391
ua, ue, and uo 246 550 388 246 601 388
uw 245 550 388 245 601 388
pe/le/fe 245 550 385 245 601 385
Rest of C + V pairs 245 550 293 245 550 293
Rest of V + V pairs 245 550 274 245 550 274

Therefore, one is left with 245 possible opening bigrams, or 39.2% of the initial maximum:

Permitted two-letter native opening combinations in Relformaide (marked in green)
aa ab ach ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap ar as at au av aw ax ay az
ba bb bch bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz
cha chb chch chd che chf chg chh chi chj chk chl chm chn cho chp chr chs cht chu chv chw chx chy chz
da db dch dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz
ea eb ech ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez
fa fb fch fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz
ga gb gch gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz
ha hb hch hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hr hs ht hu hv hw hx hy hz
ia ib ich id ie if ig ih ii ij ik il im in io ip ir is it iu iv iw ix iy iz
ja jb jch jd je jf jg jh ji jj jk jl jm jn jo jp jr js jt ju jv jw jx jy jz
ka kb kch kd ke kf kg kh ki kj kk kl km kn ko kp kr ks kt ku kv kw kx ky kz
la lb lch ld le lf lg lh li lj lk ll lm ln lo lp lr ls lt lu lv lw lx ly lz
ma mb mch md me mf mg mh mi mj mk ml mm mn mo mp mr ms mt mu mv mw mx my mz
na nb nch nd ne nf ng nh ni nj nk nl nm nn no np nr ns nt nu nv nw nx ny nz
oa ob och od oe of og oh oi oj ok ol om on oo op or os ot ou ov ow ox oy oz
pa pb pch pd pe pf pg ph pi pj pk pl pm pn po pp pr ps pt pu pv pw px py pz
ra rb rch rd re rf rg rh ri rj rk rl rm rn ro rp rr rs rt ru rv rw rx ry rz
sa sb sch sd se sf sg sh si sj sk sl sm sn so sp sr ss st su sv sw sx sy sz
ta tb tch td te tf tg th ti tj tk tl tm tn to tp tr ts tt tu tv tw tx ty tz
ua ub uch ud ue uf ug uh ui uj uk ul um un uo up ur us ut uu uv uw ux uy uz
va vb vch vd ve vf vg vh vi vj vk vl vm vn vo vp vr vs vt vu vv vw vx vy vz
wa wb wch wd we wf wg wh wi wj wk wl wm wn wo wp wr ws wt wu wv ww wx wy wz
ya yb ych yd ye yf yg yh yi yj yk yl ym yn yo yp yr ys yt yu yv yw yx yy yz
za zb zch zd ze zf zg zh zi zj zk zl zm zn zo zp zr zs zt zu zv zw zx zy zz

After removing bigrams which end with vowels and s (per language rules), and factoring in the tense markers /plé//péfé, there are 134 potential biliteral morphemes (or 21.44% of the initial maximum, or 54.694% of all legal combos). Of these, 16 (or 11.94%, not counting plural markers) are documented in Relformaide.[5]

Permitted native two-letter root combinations in Relformaide (marked in green)
aa ab ach ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap ar as at au av aw ax ay az
ba bb bch bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz
cha chb chch chd che chf chg chh chi chj chk chl chm chn cho chp chr chs cht chu chv chw chx chy chz
da db dch dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz
ea eb ech ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez
fa fb fch fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz
ga gb gch gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz
ha hb hch hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hr hs ht hu hv hw hx hy hz
ia ib ich id ie if ig ih ii ij ik il im in io ip ir is it iu iv iw ix iy iz
ja jb jch jd je jf jg jh ji jj jk jl jm jn jo jp jr js jt ju jv jw jx jy jz
ka kb kch kd ke kf kg kh ki kj kk kl km kn ko kp kr ks kt ku kv kw kx ky kz
la lb lch ld le lf lg lh li lj lk ll lm ln lo lp lr ls lt lu lv lw lx ly lz
ma mb mch md me mf mg mh mi mj mk ml mm mn mo mp mr ms mt mu mv mw mx my mz
na nb nch nd ne nf ng nh ni nj nk nl nm nn no np nr ns nt nu nv nw nx ny nz
oa ob och od oe of og oh oi oj ok ol om on oo op or os ot ou ov ow ox oy oz
pa pb pch pd pe pf pg ph pi pj pk pl pm pn po pp pr ps pt pu pv pw px py pz
ra rb rch rd re rf rg rh ri rj rk rl rm rn ro rp rr rs rt ru rv rw rx ry rz
sa sb sch sd se sf sg sh si sj sk sl sm sn so sp sr ss st su sv sw sx sy sz
ta tb tch td te tf tg th ti tj tk tl tm tn to tp tr ts tt tu tv tw tx ty tz
ua ub uch ud ue uf ug uh ui uj uk ul um un uo up ur us ut uu uv uw ux uy uz
va vb vch vd ve vf vg vh vi vj vk vl vm vn vo vp vr vs vt vu vv vw vx vy vz
wa wb wch wd we wf wg wh wi wj wk wl wm wn wo wp wr ws wt wu wv ww wx wy wz
ya yb ych yd ye yf yg yh yi yj yk yl ym yn yo yp yr ys yt yu yv yw yx yy yz
za zb zch zd ze zf zg zh zi zj zk zl zm zn zo zp zr zs zt zu zv zw zx zy zz

Intra-letter changes

In forming compound words, several letter combinations may appear awkward if not checked. As a result, Relformaide has several insertion/mutation rules to prevent them from surfacing, as the table below demonstrates:

  • -z and -v before certain initial letters
  • -f before another v
  • Insertion of -ǐ- between difficult consonant clusters
Last letter in compound root #1 First letter in compound root #2
a b ch d e f g h i j k l m n o p r s t u v w y z
b ba bb bch bd be bf bǐg bh bi bǐj bk bl bm bn bo bp br bs bt bu bv bw by bz
ch cha chǐb chǐch chǐd che chf chǐg chh chi chǐj chk chl chm chn cho chǐp chr chǐs chǐt chu chv chw chy chǐz
d da db dǐch dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dr ds dt du dv dw dy dz
e[mut 1] era éb éch éd ere éf ég éh eri éj ék él ém én ero ép ér és ét eru év éw éy éz
f fa fǐb fch fǐd fe ff fǐg fh fi fj fǐk fl fm fn fo fǐp fr fs ft fu ѵv fw fy fz
g ga gǐb gǐch gǐd ge gǐf gg gh gi gǐj gk gl gm gn go gǐp gr gs gt gu gǐv gw gy gz
h[mut 2] ha hb hǐch hǐd he hǐf hǐg hh hi hǐj hk hl hm hn ho hp hr hs hǐt hu hǐv hw hy hz
j ja jǐb jǐch jǐd je jǐf ġg jh ji jj jǐk jl jm jn jo jǐp jr jǐs jǐt ju jǐv jw jy jǐz
k ka kǐb kǐch kǐd ke kǐf kǐg kh ki kj kk kl km kn ko kp kr ks kt ku kv kw ky kz
l la lb lch ld le lf lg lh li lj lk ll lm ln lo lp lr ls lt lu lv lw ly lz
m ma mb mch md me mf mg mh mi mj mk ml mm mn mo mp mr ms mt mu mv mw my mz
n na nb nch nd ne nf ng nh ni nj nk nl nm nn no np nr ns nt nu nv nw ny nz
p pa pb pch pd pe pf pg ph pi pj pk pl pm pn po pp pr ps pt pu pv pw py pz
r ra rb rch rd re rf rg rh ri rj rk rl rm rn ro rp rr rs rt ru rv rw ry rz
t ta tb tch td te tf tg th ti tj tk tl tm tn to tp tr ts tt tu tv tw ty tz
v va vǐb ƒch vǐd ve ƒf vǐg vh vi vǐj vǐk vl vm vn vo vǐp vr ƒs ƒt vu vv vw vy ƒz
w wa wb wch wd we wf wg wh wi wj wk wl wm wn wo wp wr ws wt wu wv ww wy wz
x xa xǐb xch xǐd xe xf xǐg xh xi xǐj xik xl xm xn xo xp xr xis xt xu xǐv xw xy xiz
y ya yb ych yd ye yf yg yh yi yj yk yl ym yn yo yp yr ys yt yu yv yw yy yz
z za zǐb śch zǐd ze zǐf zǐg śh zi zǐj śk zl śm śn zo śp zr śs śt zu zǐv zw zy zz
  1. Only in the tense markers pé-, plé-, fé-, and péfé-.
  2. Extremely rare.

For roots which end with a consonant followed by l or r, a regular -i- interfix is added before another consonant. Root-final clusters following this rule include bl, fl, kl, pl, sl, br, fr, kr, pr, and tr.


Relformaide carries the same inventory of punctuation marks found in various Indo-European languages. Its quotation marks (wilémètes, «») are borrowed from French; other symbols ([{<- — _ , ; : . ... ? ! & @ * # % $ € £ ¥ ¢ † ‡ § ~ + × ÷ = º / \ |>}]) remain as-is. (For usage examples, see § Parts of speech: Referential pronouns and § Syntax: Quotations and punctuation.)


Relformaide consists of several hundred base morphemes, all of which are either free (capable of standing alone) or bound (only found in derivations and inflections).[2] Depending on their function and position in a word, they can either serve as roots (capable of standing alone semantically) or affixes (capable of inflecting a root).


Source languages

Roots comprise the vast majority of Relformaide's base morphemes; all of them end with a consonant (save for s) and vary in length. Many of them are borrowed from earlier and more modern varieties of English, as well as the Romance languages (French, Spanish, Portuguese, &c.) and their ancestor, Latin. Some are derived from the Greek, Baltic (Lithuanian, Latvian), Slavic (Russian, Macedonian, Czech), and Germanic (German, Dutch, Swedish) branches of Indo-European; several from the Uralic family (Hungarian, Finnish); and others from Afro-Asiatic (Hebrew, Arabic, Maltese), Niger-Congo (Swahili, Xhosa), Austronesian (Malagasy), Cariban, Arawakan, established language isolates Basque and Korean, and more.


Five standalone uniliteral roots, all part of the Core (Júrèke) group, are the shortest in Relformaide:

  • l- (DEF — the art def)
  • m- (1 — 1st person; I/me/my; we/us/our prn)
  • t- (2.FAM — 2nd person, familiar; you[r] prn)
  • b- (be v)
  • v- (go)

There are several two-letter roots, including:

  • -ad- (to)
  • -av- (PERF — perfect verb)
  • -et- (DIM — diminutive suff)
  • -ịb- (ERG — ergative marker)
  • -id- (state/quality of being)
  • -if- (characterised by suff)
  • -oz- (GEN — genitive/possession marker)
  • un- (INDF — a[n]/some art indef).

Most basic roots contain 3-5 letters, with some bearing six. Relatively few are longer, with only a handful (kangaroun — kangaroo; melíagriz — turkey; kinkajoul — kinkajou) reaching up to nine.

Derivation rules

Base roots in Relformaide are formulated and chosen so that:

  1. they can be as machine-readable as possible, as with Lojban (another constructed language); and
  2. their spellings do not conflict with those of other roots or legible combinations.[6]

Thanks to the above factors, it is possible to form new roots that combine existing ones with nonexistent or invalid strings:

  • déoz- (awe), sourced from Greek, contains the -oz- possessive marker at the end, but the first two letters () are an invalid combo ending with a vowel. Similarly, ríant (Welsh for "parent") combines the invalid with the continuative verb mood marker, -ant.

Extra care should be taken when forming roots that begin with pé/per, plé/pler, and fé/fer (the verb tense markers), l/m/t/b/v, or z/d/f:

  • fer- (or féroz-) cannot represent the Latin for "wild" or "savage"; instead, Armenian-sourced vairim is used. Similarly, lokand (a Gujarati borrowing) corresponds to the Latin ferrum, or iron.
  • feast- is ported directly from English, since using the Latin-based fest- with -ed will result in fested (young party)/fésted (future place).

If the source word serves as an adposition and/or conjunction, then the Relformaide root should not end with a consonant followed by l or r (e.g. -fl, -dr, -pr, -tr), as such combos may prove unwieldy to pronounce. Interjection roots can also end with Cr; as a rule, -at is the mandatory marker.

Double consonants are not permitted in base roots, but are acceptable in compound forms (e.g. addez — tell [ad, "to object" + dez, "say"]).


Affixes in Relformaide are either inflectional/derivational markers, or normal roots modifying the meaning of a preceding stem. As in the Romance languages and English, they are either prefixes (at the start of words) or suffixes (at the end). Many in the latter group represent various word classes as Termisons (or Fimättimes), so called because of their purpose and position.

Nouns, pronouns, and articles

Relformaide reserves three vowels to mark gender at the end of all words except conjunctions, adpositions, and interjections:

  • -o (MASC — male)
  • -a (FEM — female)
  • -e (N — neuter/unspecified/pan-gender; only in nouns, pronouns, and articles)


All adjectives and adjectival phrases (ADJ) end in -i, and are derivational. Comparatives are formed by suffixing -rak after the root, and superlatives with -ráken; the same applies for adverbs. (The corresponding inverse suffixoids are -ruk and -rúken.)


Adverbs and adverbial phrases (ADV) end in -u, and are also derivational. -u is equivalent to English -ly, French -ment, and Spanish -mente in most given cases.


Conjugation of Relformaide verbs is straightforward, and involves the -ar termison for infinitives; -at for indicative forms; -ait for the imperative; -ant for the continuative and progressive moods (present participle); -aid for past participles; and so forth. An -av between the root and select verbal suffixes gives variants in the perfect aspect.

Of Relformaide's five tenses, only the present is unmarked. The rest are handled by four prefixes: pé(r)- (simple past), plé(r)- (discontinuous past), fé(r)- (future), and péfé(r)- (future in the past). The extra r in each one serves as an interfix before vowel-initial roots.

Nal- signifies negation, and occupies a word's leftmost possible slot.


Interjections either assume their unmarked root forms, or end with -(a)t.

Adpositions and conjunctions

Adpositions and conjunctions always assume their root forms, and take no termisons.


As in English, French, Spanish, and Portuguese, plural forms are denoted with an -s at the end of nouns, pronouns, and articles, as well as any adjectives preceding nouns. This is the final possible slot in Relformaide's word formation system; verbs and adverbs, as a rule, do not take plural endings.

  • -os (MASC-PL — male plural)
  • -as (FEM-PL — female plural)
  • -es (N-PL — neuter plural)
  • -is (ADJ-PL — plural adjective)

In complex compound forms, -*s (as applies to nouns) becomes -suel before the focus root, as in the possessive verb mośsuelar (to be ours) and the case-inflected aumbretsuelómistua (for the girls' sake).

Possessive adjectives inflect for gender with buffer letter , followed by -o(s) or -a(s): tozińo (of yours; male singular), lumośsuelińas (of theirs; female plural agreeing with plural noun).

Base affix charts

Stem Meaning Type
nal- predicate/complement negation marker Free
pé-/per- simple past tense; former, ex- Bound
plé-/pler- discontinuous past tense (used to) Bound
fé-/fer- future tense; "-to-be" Bound
nid- non-, not, un- Free
rel- re-, repeated, again, anew Free
ver- back(wards) Free
prev- before Free
áprev- after Free
saub- sub- Bound
-ad- to (of indirect objects); at (of places) Free
-aup- to(wards) (a location or thing) Free
-pir- for (a place or thing, in designation) Free
-int- in (a place or thing) Free
-tranz- through (a place or object) Free
-tug- out of, outside (a place or thing) Free
-tüvv- out of (a place or thing, in departure) Free
-weg- off the surface of (an object of origin) Free
-vek- with, accompanied by (someone/something) Free
-wan- with (an instrument/tool/device) Free
-proxim- near, next to, close by (a location or thing); nearly/almost # Free
-shak- each/every (prefix); per object (suffix) Free
-ard 1,000,000x (one million [of], in numbers); augmentative suffix (for other words) Bound
-raz times #, #-fold; multiple of x (with numbers) Free
-tam about/approximately/roughly # (only with numbers) Free
-tem #st/nd/rd/th (only in ordinal numbers) Bound
-tim x/# (in fractions); a small piece/portion/segment (of inanimate subjects) Free
-tuim #-plet (when referring to twins) Free
-nível (originating) from a place, person, or thing Free
-iak on (the surface of) Free
-ósot up to the point of (a place), until Free
-äffim ending up at (a place) Free
-ómist for/(dedicated) to (in media); for the benefit/sake of Free
-anfil prone/susceptible/liable to (something) Free
-ámel frequent(ly), often, occasional(ly) (of an action or state) Free
-euz full of... Bound
-sin without, -less Free
-seul only, exclusively Free
-leiv equal to, like; -oid/-ine (of animals) Free
-símil similar to Free
-úvel step-(relative); nearly/almost (in numbers); ersatz/mock (before other roots) Free
-kuam more than/much as (an object) (after comparatives formed with -rak/-ruk) Free
-truz set or group of... Free
-maz collection of... Free
-budin team of... (only with animate subjects) Free
-tánul the study/field of... Free
-ail of or pertaining to a place, person, or thing Bound
-íen someone who is/does, comes from/lives in/resides in (of places), plays (of games/sports), specialises in Bound
-íer something that does... (with action verbs) Bound
-íom -ium (in chemistry) Bound
-ead medium-sized (clothing terms) Bound
-et small (in size), miniature, brief (in time) Bound
-ed young in age Free
-eb baby/newborn (of animals), seedling/sapling/sprout (of plants) Bound
-rak comparative (cf. English -er) Free
-ráken superlative (cf. English -est) Free
-ruk less... Free
-rúken least... Free
-inz causative verb marker (to cause/make...) Free
-inzaid because (of), thanks to Free
-iz the act of turning/transforming into/converting to... Bound
-id the quality or state of being... Free
-if the nature of (being)/characterised by... (adjectives and adverbs) Bound
-aig the use/action of... Free
-uit intensifier Bound
-ịb ergative marker (chiefly used for passive statements in OVS) Bound
-eun topic marker (cf. English "speaking of/as for SBJ") Bound
-ịbeun identificative marker (only in certain sentence orders; see below) Bound
-uen emphasis marker Bound
-oz possessive marker (mostly in nouns and pronouns; cf. English 's) Bound
-zol proprietive marker (in complements associated with a referent; see below) Free
-stel of, associated with Free
-zeg quotative/indirect speech marker Free
-suel complex plural Bound
-av perfect verb[7] Bound
-aij prospective marker[8] Bound
-ain gerund noun from verb; the result of an action Bound
Suffix Class Function
-e Noun Neuter
-o Masculine
-a Feminine
-i Adjective/Adjectival phrase
-u Adverb/Adverbial phrase
-s Plural
-ar Verb Infinitive
-at Indicative
-aik Conditional/Subjunctive[9]
-ait Imperative
-ant Continuative/Progressive
-aid Past participle
-(a)t Interjections

Split ergativity

A feature of Relformaide is its split ergativity, whereby pronouns and determiners utilise a nominative–accusative system, but passive-voice sentences using only nouns follow an ergative–absolutive pattern. Below is a comparison involving the inanimate noun livré (book); the animate feminine noun lapina (rabbit doe); and the third-person masculine pronoun lumo.

Case Word
livré lapina lumo
Ergative livribe lapiníba lumo
Nominative livré lapina
Accusative lumio

Gender alignment

In nearly all cases, the grammatical gender of a Relformaide word matches its natural gender. Terms for water transportation, inanimate in the real world but nonetheless feminised per English tradition, are the notable exception.

Type Gender Termison(s)
Gramm. Nat.
Animate masculine creatures in kingdom Animalia M M -o
Animate feminine creatures in kingdom Animalia F F -a
Animate creatures in Animalia, whose gender is unknown/undetermined/irrelevant N N -e
Groups of animate masculine members from Animalia M M -o(s)
Groups of animate feminine members from Animalia F F -a(s)
Groups consisting of both masculine and feminine creatures from Animalia N N -e(s)
Animate beings in kingdom Plantae N N -e(s)
Inanimate material objects (except water transportation) C N -e(s)
Water transportation C F -a(s)
Given names of masculine beings M M -o
Given names of feminine beings F F -a
Names of languages, fields, specialties, movements, events, and seasons C N -e
Names of places (continents; bodies of water — oceans, seas, bays, straits, gulfs; countries; subdivisions — states, provinces, districts, parishes, prefectures, counties, communes; cities and towns; villages and hamlets) C N -o


As in various agglutinative languages and the already established Esperanto (also a constructed language itself), new words in Relformaide can be formed out of existing base roots and affixes (as will be seen later in § Word formation). As shown earlier on, certain combinations with difficult consonant clusters utilise the buffer vowel ǐ: lech + sin = lechǐsin (lactose-free); plaj + tug = plajǐtug (outside the beach); kaz + baz = kazǐbazad (below the house; in the basement).

Word classes

All words in Relformaiké are categorised into nine classes: articles, pronouns, nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, adpositions, conjunctions, and interjections.



English has one definite article, the, which translates into lo (masculine), la (feminine) and le (neuter) in Relformaiké. Example:

lo ríanto (the father), la ríanta (the mother), le ríante (the parent).

If a neuter word's last three letters are e + C + e, then the penultimate e receives a grave accent (è):

lo jouvíeno (the boy), la jouvíena (the girl), le jouviène (the child/young one).

When a plural noun is used, -s is likewise added to the end of the preceding article as in French and Spanish:

los ríantos (the fathers), las ríantas (the mothers), les ríantes (the parents).
los jouvíenos (the boys), las jouvíenas (the girls), les jouviènes (the children/young ones).

Lo/la/le exhibits elision similar to French when it becomes l' before a vowel:

l'aumbro (the man), l'aumbra (the woman), l'aumbré (the person).

It switches back to los/las/les in plural form, however:

los aumbros (the men), las aumbras (the women), les aumbrés (the persons/people).

Countries with traditional plural forms remain that way when converted into Relformaiké:

les Oaninzaikis Sívittimes (United States), les Baśsívites (Netherlands),[11] les Mauldives (Maldives), les Filipines (Philippines).


English's indefinite article, a(n), corresponds to uno (masculine), una (feminine), and une (neuter) in Relformaiké:

uno jouvíeno (a boy), una jouvíena (a girl), une jouviène (a youngster).

Before vowels, it turns into un':

un'aumbra (a woman), un'audière (an ear).

Pluralised, it becomes the word for some:

unos jouvíenos (some boys), unas aumbras (some women), unes aumbrètes (some children).



Relformaiké's pronoun system is modelled after those of Spanish and Quechua.[12] All pronouns decline for case, number, and gender, as do nouns. This table covers the basic neuter forms; for a complete rundown, see Project:Pronoun chart.

Person Type
Subject Object Indirect Possessive Reflexive Reflexive Emphatic
Determiner / Pronoun Adjective Verb Emphatic
1st Singular mié madé mozé mozi mozar sebmozé sebmé séblimé
Plural més miés madés mozés mośsueli mośsuelar sebmozés sebmés séblimés
2nd (Familiar) Singular tié tadé tozé tozi tozar sebtozé sebté séblité
Plural tés tiés tadés tozés tośsueli tośsuelar sebtozés sebtés séblités
2nd (Formal) Singular usté ustié ustadé ustozé ustozi ustozar sébustozé sébusté séblusté
Plural ustés ustiés ustadés ustozés ustośsueli ustośsuelar sébustozés sébustes séblustés
3rd Singular lumé lumié lumadé lumozé lumozi lumozar séblumozé séblumé séblilumé
Plural lumés lumiés lumadés lumozés lumośsueli lumośsuelar séblumozés séblumés séblilumés


Relformaiké employs a special pronoun, selbé/selbo/selba, to denote the subject last referred to. It is inspired by, and acts the same way as, Lojban ri.

Jíemp lumo vat, selbo prendat les óbritoles. (When he goes, he takes the keys.) (The selbo is the lumo the sentence refers to, and no one else.)

When the subject is also the object, selbié/selbio/selbia is used:

Jíemp luma vat, toutiène vat vek selbia. (When she goes, everyone goes with her.)

If another sentence refers to the object, then selbème/selbemo/selbema is used:

Jauno véyat l'aibũre. Selbème bat trezaulti. (John sees the tree. It is very tall.)

When two or more items are stated, a reference number follows selb*/selbem*, as demonstrated in this translation from Herman Melville's Moby-Dick (Chapter 135, "The Chase — Third Day"):

«Plovarda! Moarttenière!—touƒtème moarttenière!» pékrivat Âhab nível selboana; «selbtrigozé drève seulbaik Ámeriki!»
"The ship! The hearse!—the second hearse!" cried Ahab from the boat; "its wood could only be American!"

Here, selboana refers to the ship Captain Ahab himself is on, and selbtrigozé refers to "the second hearse".


In addition, the language possesses several relative pronouns, all of which are counterparts to the interrogatives and begin with j.

Pronoun Interrogative Parent morpheme English meaning
jiène kiène -íen who
jíenie kíenie -íen whom
jíenoze kíenoze -íen whose
jière kière -íer which, that


In Relformaiké, nouns given to members of the taxonomic kingdom Animalia are assigned masculine (male) and feminine (female) forms, ending in -o and -a respectively. This is the case for human beings, as shown below:

aumbro (man; male human) corresponds to aumbra (woman; female human). Similarly, jouvíeno (young male) corresponds to jouvíena (young female).

Plurals are formed by adding an -s at the end:

aumbros (men)/aumbras (women); jouvíenos (young males)/jouvíenas (young females).

The above rules also apply to non-human animals:

chono(s)/chona(s) (cat[s]); kaino(s)/kaina(s) (dog[s]); báleano(s)/báleana(s) (whale[s]).

When the subject's gender is unknown, undetermined, unspecified, or irrelevant, the neuter form (-e) is assumed; this also applies to groups and crowds with members in both genders:

aumbré(s) (person[s]); ríante(s) (parents); jouviène(s) (young person[s]); choné(s) (cat[s]); kaine(s) (dog[s]); báleane(s) (whale[s]).

Although they are living organisms, plants and trees are considered neuter:

l'aibũre (tree), le flũre (flower), l'ulvé (garden/swamp weed).

All other nouns are considered inanimate, and also end with -e:

le chaize (chair; concrete object), le vasare (summer; abstract concept), l'astreltánule (astronomy; study/field).


For words in this category, the same rules for gender apply:

  • póliezíeno (policeman)/póliezíena (policewoman) — BUT le pólize (the police [force])
  • pîloto/pîlota (pilot)
  • brulsiviníero/brulsiviníera (firefighter)
  • livrálenkazíeno/livrálenkazíena (librarian)
  • ódígíeno/ódígíena (leader [of a country]; driver [of a car])
  • regíeno (king)/regíena (queen)
  • regíenódro (prince)/regíenódra (princess)
  • dúko (duke)/dúka (duchess)
  • Sénoro (Sro., Mister/Mr.)/Sénora (Sra., Missis/Mrs.); Moinsénora (Msra., Miss/Ms.)
  • Aultíeno/Aultíena (Highness)
  • (lo) Paipo (the Pope)

Proper nouns

Proper nouns are converted per Relformaiké's spelling conventions. All first names of people are given -o/-a endings, depending on the subject's gender. Names of languages are treated as neuter, ending with -e. In similar fashion to Ido, place names can either end with -e or inherit the -o or -a from the original word, but remain neuter.

Given names
  • Adamo (Adam)
  • Jauno (John)
  • Wilemo (William)
  • Kaita (Kate)
  • Mariya (Mary)
  • Judiya (Judy)
Place names
  • Íroape - Europe
  • Ámerika - America
  • Kánaida - Canada
  • Mexiko - Mexico
  • Karibine - the Caribbean
  • Atlantike - the Atlantic
  • Pásifike - the Pacific
  • Afrika - Africa
  • Aiźa - Asia
  • Austrailya - Australia
  • Antartika - Antarctica
  • Angleklinge - English
  • Eyrenlinge - Irish
  • Franzlinge - French
  • Spanlinge - Spanish
  • Poartuginlinge - Portuguese
  • Alémanlinge - German
  • Ítalinlinge - Italian
  • Ruschenlinge - Russian
  • Airablinge - Arabic
  • Hiebrouvlinge - Hebrew
  • Hindinlinge - Hindi
  • Mandarinlinge - Mandarin Chinese
  • Japaunlinge - Japanese
  • Indóniesinlinge - Indonesian
  • Swáhilinlinge - Swahili
  • Malgachlinge - Malagasy
  • Guaranivlinge - Guarani
  • Esperlinge - Esperanto
  • Laugiklinge - Lojban

Imported words

Surnames, terms such as QWERTY, and names of species (such as Homo sapiens) are mainly borrowed from English, and do not change their spellings in Relformaiké. This is the only instance where the language permits the use of c and q. (To mark pronunciation, c is converted into either ć [for /k/] or ç [for /s/].)


  • While inanimate in nature, Relformaiké nonetheless follows English tradition with the feminine plova (boat) and plovarda (ship).
  • "Pizza" is feminine in French, Spanish, and the native Italian; Relformaiké renders the term as the neuter pizane.


All verbs in Relformaiké end with -ar in their infinitive forms, and possess regular conjugation throughout. Unlike in the Romance languages, they are not marked for person, but rather for tense, mood, and sometimes gender plus number (as well as the perfect and prospective aspects).


As in English, Relformaiké contains five levels of verbal valency: impersonal, intransitive, transitive, ditransitive, and tritransitive. Valency determines the number of arguments that a verbal predicate takes.


With impersonal verbs, a dummy subject such as "it" precedes the predicate. In Relformaiké, they do not conjugate in the passive voice at all; words dealing with weather conditions are the most common examples, among them pleuvar (to rain) and nívinar (to snow). Whereas English uses "It rains", Relformaiké drops the subject entirely and simply uses Pleuvat.


In sentences with intransitive verbs, only the subject is involved. In Relformaiké, intransitives also lack passive conjugation; examples include bar (be), var (go), tuelar (give birth), hódizar (happen/occur/take place), and adjective-based constructs.

Luma pévat. (She went.)
Le pastèle tóbinat. (The cake is white.)

Transitive verbs normally take a subject and an object in sentences; Relformaiké examples include avar (have), véyar (see), mitar (send), and tenar (hold).

Lumo véyat le sitove. (He sees the city.)
Lumas kantat une kanté. (They [the women] sing a song.)

Transitives also behave like intransitives when no object is present, as in:

Bobino troavat bromu. (Bobby works hard.)

Ditransitive verbs take a subject and two objects, one direct and the other indirect. Relformaiké marks the indirect object with the ad adposition, as shown in this example involving dónar (give):

Máfeulo fédonat les livrés ad l'aumbreta. (Matthew will give the books to the girl.)

Some sources classify English bet as tritransitive (taking three objects). The Relformaiké equivalent, záklar, requires an indirect object, a direct object, and a relative clause at most:

Ma záklat tado touve zanahauris pasteltimes jíer Bellwether férëvválimaidat. (I bet you two slices of carrot cake that Bellwether gets re-elected.)



Infinitive verbs end with -ar, as many do in Spanish. Conjugation involves

  • -at for indicative forms;
  • -aik for the conditional and subjunctive moods;
  • -ait for the imperative;
  • -ant for the continuative and progressive moods (present participle);
  • -ain for gerunds (present participle);
  • -aijat for the prospective aspect;
  • -aid for past participles.

The -av- affix is also used for perfect forms, resulting in:

  • -avar, perfect infinitive;
  • -avat, perfect indicative;
  • -avaik, perfect conditional;
  • -avant, perfect continuative/progressive;
  • -avaijat, perfect prospective.

In certain advanced instances, verbs can inflect for gender by simply adding -o/-a after the tense/mood suffix: Chuzlumato (He cooks); Troavlumata (She works); Plétozata (Used to be yours [addressing a female listener]).


There are four tense markers which are added before indicative forms, as well as conditional/subjunctive and continuative/progressive forms; the present tense has none. These are the only prefixes in Relformaiké to end with vowels.

  • pé-/(pre-vowel) per- — Simple Past
  • plé-/(pre-vowel) pler- — Discontinuous Past
  • fé-/(pre-vowel) fer- — Future
  • péfé-/(pre-vowel) péfer- — Future in the Past

Negation is expressed with the nal- prefix, which always precedes the tense slot (and is the leftmost possible morpheme in a Relformaiké word).

Conjugation examples

Example 1: bar

Equivalents of this verb are extremely irregular in various natural languages. Its conjugation in Relformaiké is an exception, along with the Esperanto equivalent esti and Ido esar.

It is ungrammatical in English to precede be's past participle, been, with any other form of that verb. The same applies in Relformaiké, where bar lacks passive conjugation. The participle is retained in the perfect form, bavat (have/has been).

Infinitive: bar (to be)
Category Form Meaning
Affirmative Negative
Present bat nalbat (I) am, (we/you/they) are, (he/she/it) is
Past pébat nalpébat (I/he/she/it) was, (you/they) were
Discontinuous Past plébat nalplébat ...used to be
Future fébat nalfébat ...will be
Future in the Past péfébat nalpéfébat ...would be
baik nalbaik (that) SBJ be
Imperative bait! nalbait! be!
Cohortative fébait! nalfébait! let's (= let us) be!
Present Participle
(Continuative/Progressive Active)
bant[13] nalbant[13] be being
Present Participle
baine nalbaine (the) being
Prospective baijat nalbaijat about to be, going to be
Past Participle baid nalbaid been
Passive Infinitive [14] [14]
Progressive Passive Infinitive [15] [15]
Past Participle Infinitive
(Perfect Active)
bavar nalbavar (to) have been
Perfect Passive Infinitive [16] [16]
Example 2: mankar

This root conjugates in both the active and passive voices. The French counterpart, manger, possesses regular conjugation (albeit with a few spelling adjustments where applicable). The English past tense form (ate) and past participle (eaten) deviate from the regular eat(s)/eating.

Infinitive: mankar (to eat)
Category Form Meaning
Affirmative Negative
Present mankat nalmankat (I/we/you/they) eat, (he/she/it) eats
Past pémankat nalpémankat ...ate
Discontinuous Past plémankat nalplémankat ...used to eat
Future fémankat nalfémankat ...will eat
Future in the Past péfémankat nalpéfémankat ...would eat
mankaik nalmankaik (that) SBJ eat
Imperative mankait! nalmankait! eat!
Cohortative fémankait! nalfémankait! let's (= let us) eat!
Present Participle Infinitive
(Continuative/Progressive Active)
mankant nalmankant be eating
Present Participle
mankaine nalmankaine (the) eating; a meal
Prospective mankaijat nalmankaijat about to eat, going to eat
Past Participle mankaid nalmankaid eaten
Passive Infinitive mankaidar nalmankaidar be eaten
Progressive Passive Infinitive mankaidantar nalmankaidantar be being eaten
Past Participle Infinitive
(Perfect Active)
mankavar nalmankavar (to) have eaten
Perfect Passive Infinitive mankaidavar nalmankaidavar have been eaten
Example 3: foartar

Adjectives can also be used to form verbs (meaning "to be ADJ"), but do not conjugate in the passive voice (as explained in Example 1).

Infinitive: foartar (to be strong)
Category Form Meaning
Affirmative Negative
Present foartat nalfoartat (I) am strong, (we/you/they) are strong, (he/she/it) is strong
Past péfoartat nalpéfoartat (I/he/she/it) was strong, (you/they) were strong
Discontinuous Past pléfoartat nalpléfoartat ...used to be strong
Future féfoartat nalféfoartat ...will be strong
Future in the Past péféfoartat nalpéféfoartat ...would be strong
foartaik nalfoartaik (that) SBJ be strong
Imperative foartait! nalfoartait! be strong!
Cohortative féfoartait! nalféfoartait! let's (= let us) be strong!
Present Participle
(Continuative/Progressive Active)
foartant nalfoartant (be) being strong
Present Participle
foartaine nalfoartaine (the) being strong; strength
Prospective foartaijat nalfoartaijat about to be strong, going to be strong
Past Participle foartaid nalfoartaid been strong
Passive Infinitive
Progressive Passive Infinitive
Past Participle Infinitive
(Perfect Active)
foartavar nalfoartavar (to) have been strong
Perfect Passive Infinitive
Example 4: intar

Verbs can also be formed from adpositions; again, these forms do not conjugate in the passive voice. The past, past habitual, and future preverbs respectively become per-, pler-, and fer- before this vowel-initial root.

Infinitive: intar (to be in)
Category Form Meaning
Affirmative Negative
Present intat nalintat (I) am in, (we/you/they) are in, (he/she/it) is in
Past perintat nalperintat (I/he/she/it) was in, (you/they) were in
Discontinuous Past plerintat nalplerintat ...used to be in
Future ferintat nalferintat ...will be in
Future in the Past péferintat nalpéferintat ...would be in
intaik nalintaik (that) SBJ be in
Imperative intait! nalintait! be in!
Cohortative ferintait! nalferintait! let's (= let us) be in!
Present Participle
(Continuative/Progressive Active)
intant nalintant (be) being in
Present Participle
intaine nalintaine (the) being in
Prospective intaijat nalintaijat about to be in, going to be in
Past Participle intaid nalintaid been in
Passive Infinitive
Progressive Passive Infinitive
Past Participle Infinitive
(Perfect Active)
intavar nalintavar (to) have been in
Perfect Passive Infinitive
Example 5: skríbar

This is based on the rundown found in a late 19th-century book detailing the grammar of Manchu, an almost-extinct language of China.[17] (The continuative/progressive forms of this verb stand in for the translations marked as "Gerunds", while one of the "Verbal Nouns" is in fact a typical Relformaiké gerund.)

Paradigm of skríbar (to write)
(Original verb: arambi)
Category Form Meaning
Manchu Relformaiké
Imperative ara skríbait! write!
Present Tense arambi skríbat I write
Infinitive arame skríbar to write
Preterite araha péskríbat I wrote
Future arara féskríbat I shall write
Conditional araci skríbaik-mé should I write
Subjunctive Present araki skríbaik-lumo may he write
Past Gerund arafi péskríbavant having written
Imperfect arambihe péskríbant I was writing
Indefinite Past arahabi skríbavat I have written
Pluperfect arahabihe péskríbavat I had written
Past Conditional arahabici sif mé péskríbavaik if I had written
Adversative aracibe mólenuit lumo skríbaik although he may write
Concessive aracina skríbait-lumo may he write
Optative arakini seulsif lumo skríbaik would that he write
Gerund I arambime skríbantdũru while writing
Gerund II arambifi skríbavant having written
Gerund III aranggala skríbantprevu before writing
Passive arambumbi skríbaidat it is written
Causative or Passive arambubumbi skríbaidinzat I cause to be written
Verbal Noun arahangge, ararangge skríbaine, skríbiène the writing, the writer
Indefinite arahale, ararale kíenuite skríbat whoever writes
Adverbial araralame skríbantu in the manner of writing



Adjectives and adjectival phrases in Relformaiké end in -i, and come either before nouns (as in English) or after (as in French). Examples:

lo beli jouvíeno (the beautiful young male), la beli jouvíena (the beautiful girl), le beli kaze (the beautiful house), une vèye frolrákeni (a sight most delightful).

Elision is also observed, as in la bel'aumbra (the beautiful girl).

As in the Romance languages, adjectives end in -is if the nouns they describe are plural:

las gentilis aumbretas (the gentle girls), les foartis bomés (the strong walls).

In a sentence of SVD (subject–verb–description) syntax, the adjective is not pluralised if it follows the noun and verb:

le(s) nouvi(s) kaze(s) (the new house[s]) — BUT le(s) kaze(s) bat nouvi (the house is/the houses are new).

Comparatives and superlatives

Comparative forms of adjectives are made by adding -rak at the end of a root; superlatives are formed with -ráken. Suppletion is thereby avoided in those forms.

joali/joalraki/joalrákeni (good/better/best);
beni/benraki/benrákeni (well/better/best);
mali/malraki/malrákeni (bad/worse/worst);
aulti/aultraki/aultrákeni (high/higher/highest).

To express "less"/"least", -ruk and -rúken are used:

boulaiki/boulaikruki/boulaikrúkeni (important/less important/least important).



Adverbs, and adverbial phrases, end with -u. This is equivalent to the English -ly, French -ment and Spanish -mente in most given cases. Examples include:

belu (beautifully), fásilu (easily), vauvu (generously), peuvtempu (in a short while; adverbial phrase).

Comparatives and superlatives

Comparative and superlative adverbs are formed in the same manner as adjectives:

véyu/veyraku/veyrákenu (visually/more visually/most visually);
audábilu/audábilruku/audábilrúkenu (audibly/less audibly/least audibly).


Several relative adverbs are also used:

Pronoun Interrogative Parent root English meaning
jedu kedu sted where
jempu kíempu temp when
jóvaudu kóvaudu póvaud why
jówanu kówanu wan how


In Relformaiké, adpositions are the same as the root forms they derive from, and also serve as standalone prepositions. Many of them are root affixes which double as postpositions after the nouns they modify.

  • ad (at, to)
  • int (in)
  • tug (out[side])
  • tüvv (out of, away from)
  • weg (off [surface], out of)
  • änseul (on – by means of [medium])
  • sũr (on – supported by)
  • iak (on the surface of)
  • prin (on – about; concerning)
  • dẽr (of, belonging to)
  • pir (for, per)
  • vek (with, accompanied by)
  • wan (with the help of, aided by)
  • sin (without)
  • sog (plus)
  • moin (minus)
  • intad (within, inside)
  • inttug (without – outside)
  • proxim (near, next to, [near]by)
  • róvinad (beside, at the side of, next to)
  • otrírovin (opposite)
  • dékad (aboard)
  • ault (above, up, over)
  • baz (below, under[neath], beneath, down)
  • nand (as – in the role of)
  • aup (towards)
  • tranz (through, across)
  • intaup (into)
  • iakad (onto, upon, atop)
  • dũr (during)
  • prev (before, by [a given time])
  • áprev (after, following)
  • ósot (till)
  • nadósot (until)
  • touttranz (throughout)
  • áprevtemp (since, past a time)
  • vorb (beyond, past)
  • vervorb (behind, beneath)
  • ódim (against, versus)
  • prolad (between)
  • oanstel (among, one of)
  • mazint (among a group of, amid)
  • mẽrkint (amidst, in the middle of)
  • símil (like)
  • ótrid (unlike)
  • kuam (


As with adpositions, conjunctions also assume their root forms.

  • sog (and/plus)
  • sed (but – rather)
  • moin (but – except; minus)
  • jówan (how)
  • jían (so)
  • ẽrgim (so – therefore)
  • sif (if)
  • oudin (or – inclusive; either...or...or both; and/or)
  • ouden (or – exclusive; either...or; one or the other)
  • nal...ouden (neither...nor)
  • daisen (whether)
  • daisen...ouden (whether...or)
  • leiv (as – in the same way)
  • kuam (
  • nal (not)
  • póvaud (because, since, for [obs./formal])
  • jíer (that)
  • mólen (though)
  • mólenuit (although)
  • jed (where)
  • seddũr (whereas)
  • túlen (whereas — being the fact that... [legal/formal]
  • sifmoin (unless)
  • jemp (when)
  • prev (before)
  • áprev (after)
  • dũr (while)
  • ápreƒtemp (since – from the time that...)
  • kíeroz (whereof – of what/which)
  • kíenoz (whereof – of whom)


Depending on the word, interjections either remain unchanged from their root forms, or add an -(a)t to them. Examples include véyat (look!), dez (say), hinvéyat (now see here!), hin (here), han (there), réshan (an expression of surprise), bouf (an expression of annoyance or dismay), and blek (signifying disgust; equivalent to English yuck).

Special classes



Relformaide's number system is akin to those of Romance languages:

  • 0 - naul (zero)
  • 1 - oan (one)
  • 2 - touv (two)
  • 3 - trig (three)
  • 4 - ket (four)
  • 5 - kin (five)
  • 6 - sist (six)
  • 7 - sep (seven)
  • 8 - oat (eight)
  • 9 - nev (nine)
  • 10 - detz (ten)
  • 100 - sent (hundred)
  • 1,000 - kílog (thousand)
  • 1,000,000 - oanard (million)
  • 1,000,000,000 - kílogard (billion)
  • 1,000,000,000,000 - oantéran (trillion)
  • 1 × 1015 - kílöttéran (quadrillion)
  • 1 × 1018 - oanexan (quintillion)
  • 1 × 1021 - kílogexan (sextillion)
  • 1 × 1024 - oanyotan (septillion)
  • 1 × 1027 - kílogyotan (octillion)
  • 1 × 1030 - oanardyotan (nonillion)
  • 1 × 1033 - kílogardyotan (decillion)

The number system is addition- and multiple-based, resulting in the likes of detzoan (11), detśtouv (12), detśtrig (13), detśkin (15), touvǐdetz (20), touvǐdetzoan (21), trigdetz (30), ketdetz (40), kindetz (50), sepdetzoat (78), senttouvǐdetśnev (129), kinsenttrigdetśtrig (533), touvǐkílöddetśsist (2016), kindetśtrigkílog (53,000), sentketdetśkílog (140,000), and so forth. Complex numbers such as oanard-touƒsenttrigdetśketkílog-kinsentsistdetśsep (1,234,567) are hyphenated.


Ordinal forms are denoted by the -tem suffix, as in oantem (first/1st), touƒtem (second/2nd), trigtem (third/3rd), detśsisttem (sixteenth/16th), touvǐdetśneƒtem (twenty-ninth/29th), and senttem (hundredth/100th). Values up to 31st (trigdetzoantem) are used in expressing simple calendar dates.


Fractions are expressed with the -tim suffix, as in touƒtim (one half/½), trigtim (one third/⅓), kettim (a quarter/¼), oattim (one eight/⅛), detśtim (a tenth / 1/10), and senttim (a hundredth / 1/100). If higher than one, then the dividend precedes the divisor in forms such as touve trigtim (two-thirds/⅔), trige kettim (three-quarters/¾), kine ńoattim (five-eighths/⅝), sèpe detśtim (seven-tenths / 7/10), and detśtouve touvǐdetśneƒtim (twelve in 29 / 12/29).


Estimated and approximate values are expressed with the -tam suffix, most notably in detśtouƒtam (a dozen; about twelve). Other examples include senttam (about 100), trigdetśkílöttam (some 30,000), and oanardtam (roughly a million).

The -proxim suffix, meaning "near(ly)"/"almost"/"close to" in location-based expressions, is also used for numbers: ketdetśproxim (nearly 40), detśkinsentproxim (almost 150), sistkílöpproxim (close to 6,000).


Decimals can either be expressed with single numbers, or in fractions denoted by 10 to the nth power (10n). Thus, a number such as 0.421876 can be written as either naul point ket-touv-oan-oat-sep-sist (as in English), or ketsenttouvǐdetzoankílog-oatsentsepdetśsiste oanardtim (421,876/1,000,000). Similarly, 4.21876 = ket point touv-oan-oat-sep-sist or kète sog detzoankílog-oatsentsepdetśsiste sentkílöttim (421,876/100,000), and 18.6357 = detzoate sog sist-trig-kin-sep or sentoatdetśsistkílog-trigsentkindetśsèpe detśkílöttim (186,357/10,000).


As in English, the dictation of years is split between the first and last duos of numbers, so that 1789 becomes detśsep oatdetśnev; 1854, detzoat kindetśket; and 1945, detśnev ketdetśkin. If referring to 2000 or later, then something like 2006 can be interpreted as either touvǐkílogsist or touvǐdetz naulsist. Similarly, 2016 becomes touvǐkílöddetśsist or touvǐdetz detśsist, and 2020 = touvǐkílöttouvǐdetz or touvǐdetz touvǐdetz. (The last example is a rare example of reduplication in Relformaide.)

Telephone numbers are also recited by their digits. For example, 555-7824 = kin-kin-kin sep-oat-touv-ket, and 867-5309 = oat-sist-sep kin-trig-naul-nev.


Relformaide uses the -raz suffixoid to denote multiples of given numbers. It forms multiples with an -e, such as oanrazé (single); touvrazé (double); trigrazé (triple); ketrazé (quadruple); kinrazé (quintuple); and detzrazé (decuple). With -u, it corresponds to English "x-fold" or "times x", as in ketrazu (fourfold, times four); seprazu (sevenfold); oatrazu (eightfold); detzrazu (tenfold); and sepdetśseprazu (seventy-sevenfold).


Relformaide's words for arithmetic operators are sog (plus/+), moin (minus/-), raz (times/×), pódel (divided by/÷), and adal (equal/=).


Days and months

Words for days of the week, and months of the year, are formed by placing deit (week) or masin (month) before the number.

  • deitoane (Sunday)
  • deittouve (Monday)
  • deittrige (Tuesday)
  • deitkète (Wednesday)
  • deitkine (Thursday)
  • deitsiste (Friday)
  • deitsèpe (Saturday)
  • masinoane (January)
  • masintouve (February)
  • masintrige (March)
  • masinkète (April)
  • masinkine (May)
  • masinsiste (June)
  • masinsèpe (July)
  • masinoate (August)
  • masinnève (September)
  • masindetze (October)
  • masindetzoane (November)
  • masindetśtouve (December)


Numerical dates are written in either British (29/9/2016) or American (9/29/2016) form, and are fully written out in this matter: le touvǐdetśneƒtème stel masinnève, touvǐkílöddetśsiste (the 29th of September 2016).


All interrogative words in Relformaide begin with the letter k, and correspond to a core morpheme.

Word Parent morpheme English meaning Concept
ked sted where(by) location-related
kédaup sted whither location-related
kédint sted wherein location-related
kednível sted whence location-related
kíemp tíemp when time
kíen -íen who person
kíeni- -íen whom person
kíenoz- -íen whose person
kíer -íer what/which thing
kíerkout kout how much cost
kíerjían -íer wherefore specific reason
kíersaum saum how much; how many amount, quality
kíertíemp -íer at what time time (on a clock)
kíerwan -íer whereby, wherewith means, instrument
kóvaud póvaud why reason
kówan wan how, wherein manner


With Esperanto, L.L. Zamenhof managed to compile a table of correlatives. Along with the original words (in italics), the Relformaide equivalents are presented in this replica.

Concept Category
Question (?) Indication
Quality kíer
(what/such a...!)
(some kind of)
(every kind)
(no kind of)
Reason kóvaud
(therefore, so)
(for some reason)
(for all reasons)
(for no reason)
Time kíemp
Place ked
Manner kówan
(in every way)
(in no way; no-how)
Association kíenoze
(this/that one's)
(no one's)
Thing kíer
Amount kíersaum
(how much)
(that much)
(all of it)
Individual kíen
(this/that one)
(no one)

Relformaide also has its own correlative hierachy, shown below:

Concept Deixis Pronoun Parent morpheme(s)
Proximal Medial Distant Question (?) Relative
Distance proxim proxam proxaum kíerproxem jíerproxem prox*m
Where (Location) hin han haun ked jed h*n/sted
What (Subject/Object) esin esan esaun kíer jíer esen/-íer
Who (Person) esiníen esaníen esauníen kíen jíen -íen
When (Time) nout pétíemp pétíempard kíemp jíemp nout/tíemp
Why (Reason/Cause) póvaudesin póvaudesan póvaudesaun kóvaud jóvaud póvaud
How (Manner/Method/Way) wanēsin wanēsan wanēsaun kówan jówan wan


As with nouns, all words classified as determiners end in -o, -a, or -e.

  • Both articles (l- and un-)
  • Demonstratives (esine/esane [this/that], esaune [yon])
  • Possessive pronouns (e.g. moz-, toz-, lumoz-)
  • Numerals before nouns (oane, touve, trige, kète, kine, oate, detze, kindetze, sente, kíloge, oanarde)
  • Quantifiers (algune [any], menite [much/many], peuve [few], kadane [several], une [some/a certain...], touƒtoute [both], toute [every/all])
  • Distributive words (sháké [each])
  • Interrogatives kière and kíenoze
  • Relative pronouns jière and jíenoze


Several Relformaide suffixes and suffixoids serve as affects to regular roots:

  • Diminutive -et, which denotes miniature/dwarf forms of objects. Examples include ékuine (horse) → ékuinète (pony); aumbra (woman) → aumbreta (dwarfette/midget/munchkin); and toapé (stone) → toapète (pebble). -et corresponds to the impersonal free root parv- (small).
  • Juvenile -ed, which denotes young forms of creatures and plants. Examples include choné (cat) → chonède (kitten); kaine (dog) → kainède (puppy); aumbra (woman) → aumbreda (girl); and jané (creature) → janède (cub/whelp). -ed always follows -et in forms such as ékuinétède (young pony).
  • Nascent -eb, which denotes newborn/baby forms of creatures and plants: choné (cat) → chonèbe (baby kitten); fazole (bean) → fazolèbe (bean sprout); aumbra (woman) → aumbreba (baby girl).
  • Medial -ead, which indicates medium-sized objects. Commonly used with clothes and footwear-related roots, as in chámezeade (medium shirt); hoaseneade (medium pants); and jódeades (medium shoes). Corresponds to the position-specific mẽrk- (middle/central), along with the location-specific prolad- (between).
  • Augmentative -ard, which indicates large objects. Found in such derivations as plovarda (big boat = ship), laufarde (big air = atmosphere), toaparde (large stone = rock), and doarmíenarde (sleeping giant); corresponds to free roots grand- (size; impersonal) and vuxel- (age). In Relformaide, grandiène (someone who is big in size), jánarde (big creature) and aumbrarde (big human) are synonyms for English "giant".
  • -uit is used as an intensifier/differentiator (véyar = see/veyuitar = stare; ludes sog lúduites = games and sports), while -uen signifies emphasis (Luma peraiguenat = She really did it).
  • Four personal particles, each with different levels of intensity, substitute instances of -íen and -íer when in use:
    • Pejorative -ach, the strongest and most intensive, is a catchall profanity.
    • Two epithets of contempt, -puaz (literally "rotten") and -rusk (meaning "trash"/"garbage"/"rubbish"), substitute -ach in family-friendly speech.
    • Affectionate marker -lieb takes on various meanings, from "dear", "love", "honey", "sweetheart", and "cutie" in English, to "cher/chère" in French.

Word formation

Relformaide is an agglutinative language capable of producing words of various lengths, and with various inflections and derivations. As such, one can make new words out of given roots and end markers.

Formation rules

  1. Words are normally formed as in English and the Romance languages.
    1. Nouns end in -e if the subject is inanimate or neuter; -o if masculine; or -a if feminine.
      • proad- (sell) + kaz- (house) + -e (neuter marker) = proadkaze (store, shop; literally "selling-house")
      • livr- (book) + álen- (borrow) + kaz- (house) + -íen (someone from/working at) + -a (feminine marker) = livrálenkazíena (female librarian; literally "female worker at a book-borrowing house")
      • eskũr- (squirrel) + -ed (juvenile/young creature) + -o (masculine marker) + -s (plural marker) = eskũredos (boy squirrels)
    2. Verbs end with -ar in the infinitive, -at in the indicative, and so forth.
      • vev- (live) + -ar (infinitive) = vévar (to live; to be alive). To aid in pronunciation, the e is marked with an acute (‘) as in French.
  2. Emphasis is placed on the last main root (marked below in bold) in any valid combination.
    • ad- (to) + ven- (come) + -at (indicative) = advenat (SBJ arrives)
    • toukel- (hammer) + -wan (instrumental marker) + -u (adverb marker) = toukelwanu (with [the help of] a hammer)
  3. Roots that start with a bound suffix and end with a bound prefix are not permitted, and vice versa.
  4. Pronouns use the affixes allocated in their declension system, along with -íen (in phrases such as Sif mé tíenaid... [If I were you...]).
  5. Combinations consisting only of pronouns are liberally allowed. For example, m- (I/we) and t- (you) are found with an interfix in mit (send) and tim (piece).
  6. The definite-article root l- can only be followed by the gender plus plural markers, and cannot be conjugated as a verb nor combine with another root.
  7. Unless the underdotted is employed, Core roots cannot begin with any of the verb markers (-ar/-ant/-ait/-aid et al.) or tense prefixes (pé-/plé-/fe-/péfé-).
  8. If a root begins with b/l/m/t/v, then no verb markers should follow that first letter unless an ă is used to avoid morphological conflict.

Example 1: vey

Words in Relformaide can be formed from existing morphemes based on attribute, thus reducing the need for different roots when necessary. This chart, dealing with the inanimate root vey- ("see"), demonstrates the language's derivational versatility.

Word Affix(es) Meaning
Word Affix(es)
Verbs (with infinitive -ar)
véyar see, watch, view
nalvéyar nal- not see/notice (something) verb negator
veysinar -sin be blind without
prevvéyar prev- foresee, preview before
évitvéyar évit- ignore, disregard avoid
advéyar ad- look at, admire at something/someone
äuvvéyar aup- face (something/someone), look toward(s) toward(s)
vivéyar v-i- visit go + interfix
veyuitar -uit stare intensifier
peuvvéyar peuv- glance a little
intäuvvéyar int-aup- peer (at) in + towards (into)
tranzvéyar tranz- scan through
wegvéyar weg- shun off/away from
Nouns (with neuter -e)
vèye sight
veyábile -ábil vision able to...
véyaine -aine insight the result of...
prevvèye prev- foresight, preview before
févèye fé- outlook future tense marker
véyiène -íen watcher, looker, seer someone who...
véyière -íer eye something that does...
veysínide -sin-id blindness without + state of
malvèye mal- bad vision, poor eyesight bad
veystède -sted lookout, vantage point, observatory place
veyfásine -fásin videotape, videocasette, VHS tape
veytole -tol glasses tool
veytoliène -tol-íen optician tool + occupation
veyíerdauktère -íer-daukter oculist, eye doctor something that does... + doctor for
tranzveytole tranz-R-tol window through + see + tool
proxamveytole proxam-R-tol binoculars far + see + tool
astrelveytole astrel-R-tol telescope star + see + tool
Adjective/Adverb (with -i/-u)
véyi -i visual
veysini -sin-i blind without
véyu -u visually
veysinu -sin-u blindly without

Example 2: ed

This paradigm demonstrates the versatility of the animate root, ed- (young). Ed- is among a handful of roots to employ all five uniliteral termisons, plus the verbal ones, in its simplest form. (It turns into ńed- when placed after a vowel.)

Word Affix(es) Meaning
Word Affix(es)
Basic words
ède -e youngster, youth, youngling, child, kid, tyke neuter noun
edo -o boy masculine noun
eda -a girl feminine noun
edi -i young adjective
edu -u youngly (Rare) adverb
edar -ar to be young infinitive verb
Compound words
edraké -rak-e the younger comparative + neuter
edraki -rak-i younger comparative + adjective
edrákène -ráken-e the youngest superlative + neuter
edrákeni -ráken-i youngest superlative + adjective
edómisti -ómist-i children's dedicated to + adjective
édeuzi -euz-i youthful full of + adjective
édeuzu -euz-u youthfully full of + adjective
édide[18] -id-e youth state/condition + neuter
ednandu -nand-u as a child, while young as... + adverb
reledi rel-R-i young again again + young + adjective
relédinzar rel-R-inz-ar to rejuvenate again + young + cause + infinitive verb
relédinzière rel-R-inz-íer-e the Fountain of Youth again + young + cause + agent + neuter
ódrède ódr-R-e young offspring/progeny child + young + neuter
janède jan-R-e cub, whelp, young creature creature + young + neuter
Ámeríkíenèdes Ámerik-íen-R-e-s "Kids in America" America + demonym + young + neuter + plural

Example 3: kaz

This declension chart for the inanimate root kaz- ("house") is another example of Relformaide's agglutinative nature. The intrafixes -oz- and -ib-, plus the -u suffix (and the -i- in accusative pronouns), are the language's only bound case markers; -eun- and -e(s) mark topics and singularity/plurality respectively; and -suel- represents a plural subject before case particles. The remaining affixes are postpositional mesoclitics, each corresponding to one of over 60 other cases found in other natural and constructed languages (whether single or compound).

Case Suffix Derivation Meaning
Singular Plural
Subject -e kaze kazes (the) house(s)
Topic -eune kazeune kazeunes as for the house(s)
Ergative -ibe kazibe kazibes (the) house(s) (as passive agent)
Identificative[19] -íbeune kazíbeune kazíbeunes (the) house(s), identified as...
Genitive -oze kazoze kazozes (the) house's/houses'
Dative -ade kazade kazades (to) the house(s)
Partitive -únète kazúnète kazúnètes part of the house(s)
Vocative Familiar -té kaśté kaśtés O house(s)
Formal -usté kázusté kázustés O house(s)
Adverbial -u kazu in the manner/way of a house
Instrumental -wan kazwan kaśsuelwan with (the help of) the house(s), using the house(s)
-wek kazwek kaśsuelwek (along) with the house(s)
Proprietive -zol kazzol kaśsuelzol ...with the house(s)
(as part of someone's belongings)
Possessive -stel kaśstel kaśsuelstel associated with the house(s)
Causal/Motivative[20] -inzaid kázinzaid kaśsuelinzaid because of/thanks to the house(s)
Utilitive -pir kaśpir kaśsuelpir for use in the house(s); (intended) for home use
Benefactive -ómist kazómist kaśsuelómist for (the benefit of) the house(s), for the house's/houses' sake,
(dedicated) to the house(s)
Antessive/Precursive -prev kaśprev kaśsuelprev before the house(s)
Postcursive -áprev kazáprev kaśsueláprev after the house(s)
Originative -nível kaśnível kaśsuelnível (originating, coming) from the house(s) (of)
Egressive -äpprem kazäpprem kaśsueläpprem starting from the house(s) (in movement)
Initiative -premad kaśpremad kaśsuelpremad starting from the house(s) (as the source)
Terminative -ósot,
up to the point of the house(s),
ending up at the house(s)
Locative -ad kazad kaśsuelad at the house(s) (of)[21]
-aup kazaup kaśsuelaup towards the house(s) (in position)
Lative -äuvv kazäuvv kaśsueläuvv to(wards) the house(s) (in movement)
Orientative -fasélaup kazǐfasélaup kaśsuelfasélaup facing the house(s)
Cisative -túdelad kaśtudelad kaśsueltúdelad at the side of the house(s)[22]
Apudessive -proxim kaśproxim kaśsuelproxim near/next to the house(s), by the house(s)
Apudlative -proximad kaśproximad kaśsuelproximad at the vicinity of the house(s)
Apudallative -proximaup kaśproximaup kaśsuelproximaup towards the vicinity of the house(s)
Pertingent -tang kaśtang kaśsueltang touching/against the surface of the house(s)
Adessive -iak kazíak kaśsuelíak on the surface of the house(s)
Altessive -ault kazault kaśsuelault above the house(s)
Superessive -aultad kazaultad kaśsuelaultad atop the surface of the house(s); on the roof(s)
Superlative[23] -äulvv kazäulvv kaśsueläulvv over the top of the house(s); over the roof(s)
Transitive -tranz kaśtranz kaśsueltranz through the house(s)
Prolative -korttranz kaśkorttranz kaśsuelkorttranz along the house(s)
Inessive I -int kazint kaśsuelint in the house(s)
II -intad kazintad kaśsuelintad within the house(s), inside the house(s)
Illative -intaup kazintaup kaśsuelintaup into (in towards) the house(s)
Interessive/Intrative Dual -prolad kaśprolad between the (two) houses
Plural -mazintad kaśmazintad among the houses
Intertransitive Dual -proltranz kaśproltranz in between the two houses
Plural -maśtranz kaśmaśtranz going amidst the houses
Contessive -mazint kaśmazint among the houses, amidst the houses
Ablative -tug kaśtug kaśsueltug outside the house(s) (in position)
Elative -tüvv kaśtüvv kaśsueltüvv off the house(s), out of the house(s) (in movement)
Delative -weg kazweg kaśsuelweg off (the surface of) the house(s)
Subessive -baz kazǐbaz kaśsuelbaz below the surface of the house(s),
underneath the house(s)
Sublative -bazad kazǐbazad kaśsuelbazad at the bottom of the house(s); in the basement(s)
Abessive -sin kaśsin kaśsuelsin without the house(s); homeless
Exceptive -moin kaśmoin kaśsuelmoin except the house(s)
Selective -oanstel kazoanstel kaśkadanstel one of the houses, several of the houses
Inclusive -sogant kaśsogant kaśsuelsogant including the house(s)
Immediate -oantem kazoantem kaśsueloantem first the house(s)
Distributive -shak kaśshak per house
Exclusive -seul kaśseul kaśsuelseul only the house(s)
Aversive/Evitative -évit kazévit kaśsuelévit avoiding the house(s)
Substitutive -pótal kaśpótal kaśsuelpótal instead of the house(s), rather than the house(s)
Concessive -mólen kaśmólen kaśsuelmólen despite/in spite of the house(s), the house(s) in spite, although a house/houses
Postulative -sif kaśsif kaśsuelsif if the house(s), then...
Conversive -nïnsif kaśnïnsif kaśsuelnïnsif if not for the house(s), then...
Considerative -sélon kaśsélon kaśsuelsélon according to the house(s)
Essive -nand kaśnand kaśsuelnand as a house/houses
Translative -izant kazízant kaśsuelizant changing into a house/houses, becoming a house/houses
Equative -leiv kazleiv kaśsuelleiv equal to (like) the house(s), resembling the house(s)
Identical -adal kazadal kaśsueladal the same as the house(s)
Comparative -kuam kaśkuam kaśsuelkuam ( than the house(s); (as ...) as the house(s)
Formal -simil kaśsimil kaśsuelsimil like the house(s)
Referential -prin kaśprin kaśsuelprin about the house(s); concerning the house(s)
Ornative -éfoadaid kazéfoadaid kaśsueléfódaid endowed/equipped with a house/houses,
provided a house/houses (by a donor)

Relformaide also utilises the temporal case with -dũr, but only in time-based expressions and when referring to events: kindũr (at five o'clock), sẽrtnevǐdũr (at 9:00 p.m.), masinsepdũr (in July), Kristmasindũr (during the Christmas season), toakaindũr (during the concert).

Example 4: chon

While various natural languages give different terms to various animals (depending on age and gender), Relformaide uses one common root and various affixes to accomplish the same effect; this also applies with various species-associated compounds. Below is an example involving the animate root, chon- (cat).

Relformaide word English meaning
Masculine Feminine Neuter/Pan-gender Masculine Feminine Neuter/Pan-gender
chono chona choné tom queen cat
choneto choneta chonète small(-sized) cat
chonedo choneda chonède kitten, young cat
chonébo chonéba chonèbe newborn/baby kitten
chonleivo chonleiva chonleive feline
chonleivedo chonleiveda chonleivède feline cub, young feline
chonleivébo chonleivéba chonleivèbe newborn/baby feline
vairimchono vairimchona vairimchoné wild cat, feral cat
äussinchono äussinchona äussinchoné stray cat
chonaduo chonadua chonadu to the cat, at the cat
chonédaduo chonédadua chonédadu to the kitten, at the kitten
chonaupuo chonaupua chonaupu towards the cat
chonproximuo chonproximua chonproximu near the cat, next to the cat
chonaultuo chonaultua chonaultu above the cat
chonbazuo chonbazua chonbazu below the cat's feet/paws
Associated terms
chonmanké cat food
chondauné litterbox

Example 5: esper

This chart serves to address and amend the derivational defects in Esperanto, another constructed language; esper-'s definition remains as "hope".

Word Meaning
espère hope
esperi associated with hope
esperu in the manner/way of hope
esperiène one who hopes, a hopeful one
esperar to hope
esperat SBJ hope(s)
esperait! hope!
esperant[24] SBJ is hoping/continues to hope
esperanté[24] that which is hoping/continues to hope
esperantiène[24] someone who is hoping/continues to hope
esperaine the hoping (gerund)
esperaijat about to hope, going to hope
esperaijiène someone who is about to hope
esperaid hoped (past participle)
esperavant having hoped
esperaide that which is hoped
espereuzi full of hope; hopeful
espereuzu hopefully
esperanfili hope-prone
piresperar to hope for
piresperat SBJ hope(s) for
piresperant SBJ is hoping for/continues to hope for
piresperanté that which is hoping for/continues to hope for
piresperantiène someone who is hoping for/continues to hope for
piresperaijat about to hope for, going to hope for
piresperaijiène someone who is about to hope for (something)
piresperaid hoped for
piresperavant having hoped for
piresperaide that which is hoped for
Esperlinge Esperanto (literally "language of hope")
Esperlingparliène someone who speaks Esperanto
Esperlingdoseliène teacher of Esperanto
Esperlinglẽrniène student of Esperanto
Esperlingiziène Esperanto translator
Esperlingómistiène Esperanto devotee/fan

Example 6: fraul

Below is a comparison between Relformaide and Novial, an alternative to Esperanto. Novial was devised by Danish linguist Otto Jespersen in the late 1920s; this sample is taken from his 1928 work, An International Language, with variations of mari/fraul-/marry marked in bold.[25]

Novial Relformaide English
Li pastoro ha mari Paul e Anna. Paul ha mari se a Anna. Les blid mari yer; dunke les es nun marit. Paul es Annan marito, e la es li marita de Paul. Anna esed charmanti kom marienda. After li mario li du marites departad a Paris por li mari-voyaje. Nus espera ke li mariteso sal es felisi. Lo pastoro fraulinzavat Paulo sog Anya. Paulo fraulizavat vek Anya. Lumés pébat fraulizaid prevǐdeitu; ńẽrgim lumés noutu fraulizaidat. Paulo bat Anyoza fraulo, sog luma bat Paulozo fraula. Anya pébat charmanti nand fraulaija. Áprev le fraulfeste, les touve fraulés peräuvvat Párize dũr selbozé fraulvaine. Més esperat le fraulide fébat froli. The clergyman has married Paul and Anna. Paul has married Anna. They were married yesterday; thus they are now married. Paul is Anna's husband, and she is Paul's wife. Anna was charming as bride. After the wedding the married couple left for Paris on their wedding-trip. We hope the marriage (state of being married) will be happy.
Note Note:


Structure basics

Relformaiké's default word order, like that of English, is Subject–verb–object (SVO). This sentence is typical of the SVO structure:

SámoS pémankatV ouranjóvètes.O (Sam ate oranges.)

Many natural languages possess a Subject–object–verb (SOV) pattern; in Relformaiké, this leads to something like

SámoS ńouranjóvètesO pémankat.V

which appears illogical and confusing; some may assume it was Sam's oranges who did all the eating, not Sam himself. To resolve this, the ergative marker -ib- is employed between the root and the end marker, resulting in:

SámiboS ńouranjóvètesO pémankat.V

Owing to Relformaiké's agglutinative capacities, the last two words can resolve into a compound verb that translates into "orange-eating". In the first two examples, pémankat is a transitive verb; here, the resulting form is intransitive since no object follows it.

SámoS perouranjóvetmankat.V

In this case, the subject is an absolutive proper noun that retains its original form, and the past tense marker pé- assumes its pre-vowel form of per-.

Another syntax pattern, Object–subject–verb (OSV), is associated with Yoda of the Star Wars saga; otherwise, this is extremely rare in natural languages as a default order. Nonetheless, English uses it from time to time, as can Relformaiké in certain situations like this one:

OuranjóvètesO SámoS pémankat.V (Oranges Sam ate.)

When OSV sentences use articles, the result tends to be somewhat inorganic. This example is also acceptable, but is discouraged:

Le livréO l'aumbraS pélezat.V (The woman read the book.)

English employs a similar setup, Verb–object–subject (VOS), in various humorous expressions. Relformaiké also accommodates it in certain cases, such as:

SkríbatV une livré,O l'aumbreto.S (Wrote a book, the boy.)

or even more accessibly:

SkríbatV une livré,O ńesan'aumbreto.S (Wrote a book, that boy.)

Relformaiké requires a comma plus an article, determiner, or demonstrative (esin/esan) before the subject in VOS statements, or else they could appear rather unnatural as well.

PémankatV ouranjóvètes,O esane Sámo.S (He's eating oranges, that Sam.) (Note that esane does not decline into esano, as the subject's identity is not yet immediately known.)

The regular subject and object can be reversed, leading to an Object–verb–subject (OVS) setup like:

OuranjóvètesO pémankatV Sámo.S (Oranges ate Sam.)

Unmarked ergatively, this reads like an excerpt from a science-fiction story. Again, -ib- must be used to distinguish the subject, as in:

OuranjóvètesO pémankatV Sámibo.S

which is equivalent to the passive statement "Oranges were eaten by Sam." Pronouns ending in -io/-ia/-ié are exempt from this rule, as demonstrated in the next section.

As in French, the uncommon Verb–subject–object (VSO) is used to form question statements in Relformaiké; otherwise, it is not recommended in practice.

PémankatV SámoS límaunes?O (Did Sam eat lemons?)

If pronouns are involved, they are attached to the verb with a hyphen:

Pévivéyat-téVS mio?O (Did you visit me?)

If the object begins with a vowel, then ń- is added for elision purposes.

Pévivéyat-lumaVS ńustrié?O (Did she visit you?)
PémankatV SámoS ńouranjóvètes?O (Did Sam eat oranges?)

Advanced structure

With subjects and objects

Pronouns only

Standard Relformaiké nouns and pronouns are unchanged in the nominative and absolutive forms. The accusative is only used in pronouns, as seen in the following variations of the simple sentence "She loves him". (Again, the ń- is placed on vowel-initial words if end vowels follow them.)

LumaS ńaimatV lumio.O
LumaS lumioV ńaimat.O (= She him loves.)
LumioO lumaS ńaimat.V (= Him she loves.)
LumioO ńaimatV luma.S (= Him loves she.)
AimatV lumioO luma.S (= Loves him she.)
Aimat-lumaVS lumio?O (Does she love him? = Loves she him?)
Subject pronoun, object noun

If the subject remains a pronoun but the object is a noun, the ergative marker is not needed. Here, "She loves him" becomes "She loves the man", and luma is the same as before:

LumaS ńaimatV l'aumbro.O
LumaS l'aumbroO ńaimat.V (= She the man loves.)
L'aumbroO lumaS ńaimat.V (= The man she loves.)
L'aumbroO ńaimatV luma.S (= The man loves she.)
AimatV l'aumbro,O luma.S (= Loves the man, she.)
Aimat-lumaVS l'aumbro?O (Does she love the man? = Loves she the man?)
Subject noun, object pronoun

The reverse occurs in sentences such as "The lady loves him"; here, lumio is clearly distinguished as the accusative.

L'aumbraS ńaimatV lumio.O
L'aumbraS lumioO ńaimat.V (= The lady him loves.)
LumioO l'aumbraS ńaimat.V (= Him the lady loves.)
LumioO ńaimatV l'aumbra.S (= Him loves the lady.)
AimatV lumio,O l'aumbra.S (= Loves him, the lady.)
AimatV l'aumbraS lumio?O (Does the lady love him? = Loves the lady him?)
Nouns only

Relformaiké exhibits split-ergative capabilities when both a sentence's subject and object are standard nouns, thus demanding the ergative marker when necessary. (See also the examples involving "Sam ate oranges" above.)

L'aumbraS ńaimatV l'aumbro.O (The woman loves the man.)
L'aumbribaS l'aumbroO ńaimat.V (= The woman the man loves.)
L'aumbroO ńaimatV l'aumbriba.S (The man is loved by the woman./The woman loves the man.)
AimatV l'aumbraS l'aumbro?O (Does the woman love the man?)
L'aumbroS ńaimatV l'aumbra.O (The man loves the woman.)
L'aumbriboS l'aumbraO ńaimat.V (= The man the woman loves.)
L'aumbraO ńaimatV l'aumbribo.S (The woman is loved by the man./The man loves the woman.)
AimatV l'aumbroS l'aumbra?O (Does the man love the woman?)

With indirect objects

Below is another example of SVO in Relformaiké:

AnyaS vendatV (le) fáloave.O (Anne sells [the] bread.) (As in English, use of le [the] before the object is optional.)

When indirect objects are involved, -ad is placed in the word referring to the receiver:

AnyaS donatV l'aumbretadoI (le) fáloave.O (Anne gives the boy [the] bread.)
AnyaS donatV le chonadeI (le) leche.O (Anne gives the cat [the] milk.)

If the object precedes the indirect, then either -ad is used standalone:

AnyaS donatV (le) fáloaveO ńad l'aumbreto.I (Anne gives [the] bread to the boy.)
AnyaS donatV (le) lecheO ńad le choné.I (Anne gives [the] milk to the cat.)

or the case-converted word becomes an adverbial phrase:

AnyaS donatV (le) fáloaveO ńaumbretaduo.AdvP (Anne gives [the] bread to the boy.) (The -u precedes the gender marker in masculine or feminine dative nouns.)
AnyaS donatV (le) laktéO chonadu.AdvP (Anne gives [the] milk to the cat.)

With appositive phrases

Apposition involves the use of two phrases, one of which serves to identify the other. For example:

Montserrat,S a volcanic island in the Caribbean...A

Here, Montserrat is the antecedent subject, and volcanic island... is the appositive phrase describing it. In Relformaiké, the -ib- marks the subject for ergative emphasis:

Maunzerátibe,S ńune voalkanif'insule ńint le Karibine...A

When the appositive phrase refers to an occupation or role, -ib- is still used:

Moza RíantiboS lo JoalíenoA (My Father the Hero, title of a 1991 French comedy and its 1994 U.S. remake)

This example is similar to those in the previous section; again, note the use of the ergative.

Anyiba,S moza síbla,A vendaikatV (le) fáloave.O (Anne, my sister, buys [the] bread.)

This sentence makes use of both apposition and indirect objects:

Lumiba,S ńuna kárini lapineta,A pédonatV zanoza ríantadaI ńunes zanahaurés.O (She, a kind rabbit girl, gave her mother some carrots.)

When the appositive phrase describes the object, -ib- marks the subject of the statement:

LumibaS péstretatV zanoza ríanta,O ńuna fami kantíena.A (She met her [own] mother, a famous singer.)

This rule also takes effect in questions such as:

Dúbitat-tibéVS mia,O la joalrákeni krikítíena vosinu?A (Are you doubting me, the best cricket player around?)

-ib- also represents English both in sentences such as:

Ríkibo sog Nanziba teśhoulvat eskolaupu shakdeitu. (Both Rick and Nancy run to school every day.)

In certain sentences with at least two subjects or objects, one must use the -íbeun- intrafix (or identificative marker) to tell the apposition apart from other subjects. In an English sentence such as:

She, the queen, and several others were going.

it is hard to tell whether "she" refers to the queen or someone else. In Relformaiké, this resolves to:

Luma, la regíena, sog kadanótriènes pévant.

At face value, the "luma" refers to someone else who is not the queen. If she really is the queen, one can prevent ambiguity by saying:

Lumíbeuna la regíena sog kadanótriènes pévant. (= She [identified as the queen] and several others were going.)

This is helpful in more complex scenarios, such as:

Lumíbeuno, ńuno toujíeno, sog lumíbeuna, ńun'aimskríbíena, pémairítaijat. (He, an adventurer, and she, a romance writer, were about to marry.)

-íbeun- is also employed in cases where English of, and French/Spanish de, stand for "also known/named as":

L'ũrbíbeuneS Chíkágo...A (The city of Chicago...)
Le voalkanif'insulíbeuneS Maunzerate...A (The volcanic island of Montserrat...)
Note Note:
Relformaiké's use of the ergative before the appositive was inspired by the appositive case example in the grammar of Nåmúþ, a fictional constructed language constituting part of the Akana universe. Among natural languages, Basque provides some specimens; see "Examples (1943) and (1944)" in Hualde and de Urbina (2003), p. 804

See also the notes on apposition in Rick Harrison's grammar of constructed language Vorlin (2006 revision).

The use of -ib- to denote "both" was inspired by the West Greenlandic sample at the Leipzig Glossing Rules page.

With passive voice

While various languages can handle passive statements such as "The biscuit is eaten by Anne", Relformaiké has no exact equivalent for the word by in this context. Natively, a sentence assuming the form of "The subject's doer is the object" is desirable. Here, the subject turns into a possessive word:

Le biskitoze mankièneS batV Anya.O (The biscuit's eater is Anne.) (Here, mankiène does not convert to mankíena; the object's identity is not yet immediately known.)

This can be stated more easily in OVS, resulting in:

Le biskiteO mankatV Anyiba.S (Anne eats the biscuit.)

As passive voice is generally discouraged in some circles, the same sentence can be simply written as Anya mankat le biskite.

When the past participle form of a verb is also a stem, an OVS variant—OV(I)S—also applies:

Les biskitesO vendaikatV Anyada.I (The biscuits are bought by Anne.) (Vend-aik literally means "be sold", and the dative -ad- indicates whom it was sold to. One can further use something like vendkazíeniba [...through the lady shopkeeper] to ergatively indicate the seller.)

With past participles

This example from a late 19th-century edition of McGuffey's Reader demonstrates the use of the past participle:

NedoS mankinzavatPPV la poula.O (Ned has fed the hen.)[26]

With adjectives as object complements

In the English sentence "The cards painted the roses red", the adjective "red" is the object complement. A straightforward Relformaiké translation results in:

Les kartes pépeintat les roazes roubi.

With emphasis placed on the "red", this more succinct variant more or less preserves the original English syntax:

Les kartesS peintwanuAdvP péroubizatV les roazes.O (= The cards, with the help of paint, turned the roses red.)


These four versions of a sentence from the same volume, "The cat is on the mat"[27] (with an indirect object, but none direct), demonstrate Relformaiké's syntactic flexibility:

  1. Le choné bat iak l'alfaumbrète. (Isolating/Analytic, 13 morphemes / 2.6/word)
  2. Le choné ńiakat l'alfaumbrète. (Slightly agglutinating, 11 morphemes / 2.75/word)
  3. Le choné ńalfaumbretiakat. (Agglutinating, 8 morphemes / 2.667/word)
  4. Alfaumbretiakchoné. (Polysynthetic, 5 morphemes in a single word)

Emphasis increases as more affixes combine to modify the root. The first two forms are more or less written as in English, and the third approaches levels seen in Hungarian, Turkish, and Finnish among others. In all three, the emphasis is placed on alfaumbret- and its location thereof.

The last structure is typical of many an indigenous language of the Americas (such as Greenlandic and Central Alaskan Yup'ik in the Eskimo-Aleut family). Here, the focus shifts to choné, the subject of the original English sentence. As glossed, it essentially translates to "carpet-miniature-on_surface-cat-N" (alfaumbr-et-iak-chon-é).



A special intrafix in Relformaiké, -eun- (from Korean eun [은]), serves the same function as the English phrases "speaking of", "as for", "on the subject of", and "when it comes to". In a sentence such as:

Mariya ńaimat lumoza ríanta. (Mary loves her mother.)

the subject can be converted into a topic, resulting in:

Mariyeuna ńaimat lumoza ríanta. (As for Mary, she loves her mother.)

-eun- is also employed when the second half of certain sentences discusses an aspect of the first, as shown in:

Stuveuno Hopps bat un'uspeti zanahaurágrótíeno jíenoz'ódra voulprembat una póliezíena. (Speaking of Stu Hopps, he's a prosperous carrot farmer whose daughter wants to be a police officer.)
Dasalēsinēunu, les lẽrniènes kríonat. (Speaking of this class, the students are smart.)


This sentence is a normal example of a negative statement in Relformaiké:

Mé nalperäuvvat le plage. (I didn't go to the beach.)

The nal- negator can also be placed before the subject or object for emphatic focus, resulting in:

Nalmé peräuvvat le plage. (I didn't go to the beach [but someone else did].)
Mé peräuvvat nal le plage. (I didn't go to the beach [but somewhere else].)


Another special intrafix, -uen-, is used in questions for emphasis on the topic or action. For these variants of the statement Peräuvvat-té le plage? (Did you go to the beach?), the focus in the English equivalent is underlined.

Peräuvvuenat-té le plajé? (Did you go to the beach?) (The respondee may have done something else there, or just stopped over.)
Peräuvvat-tuené le plajé? (Did you go to the beach?) (Some friend of the respondee may have visited instead of them.)
Peräuvvat-té le plájuené? (Did you go to the beach?) (The asker expected the respondee to be there, but the latter may have decided to call it off or change plans.)
Note Note:
These usage examples were inspired by:


Yet another special intrafix, -zeg-, denotes reported statements and indirect speech in sentences. This counterpart to dez- (say) is borrowed from Dutch, and is equivalent to English "they say/it is said (that...)".

  • Lumo pézegat zano félezat le livré. (He said, "I'll read the book.")
  • Une vendaine premzegat noutdeitu. (They say a sale will begin today [literally, "A sale is said to begin today"].)


Relformaiké's equivalent of the English -'s is the genitive case marker, the -oz- intrafix. It is always placed between the root the gender marker in nouns, as in:

Jainoza gloabe (Jane's ball); mozríantozo kloche (my father's clock); la julgíenoza livrés (the judge's books).

When a possessed object's first letter is a vowel, the ń- is placed directly before it:

mozríantozo ńinsule (my father's island).

Whereas Romance languages use phrases such as la maison de mon oncle (French)/la casa de mi tío (Spanish), Relformaiké instead uses

le kaze lumoza ríablozońi (the house of her uncle; her uncle's house)

where a genitive adjective states whom the house belongs to. In certain complex cases, the standalone preposition dẽr is employed:

Int une chórine dẽr La Mancha, jíenoze naume mé nalfémíaltenat... (In a village of La Mancha whose name I won't recall...)
Le moinaine dẽr livré... (The declension of the word livré [book]...)

A pronoun stem followed by -oz- also forms possessive-based prefixes before nouns:

esine mośkaze (this house of mine = this in-my-possession house).

If the possessor's gender is stated, then ň is placed between the noun and prefix:

esane lumozaňlivré (that book of hers).

Relformaiké also utilises the rare proprietive case through another intrafix, -zol-. The proprietive denotes an item owned or held by a sentence's referent, and is virtually nonexistent in natural languages outside several indigenous ones from Australia (including Martuthunira and Kayardild).

Mé péstretat l'aumbra móbilardzoli. (I met the lady with the big car.)
Dúbitat-tibé mio, ńun'aumbro soalchvalzoli? (Are you doubting me, a man of such worth?)


Only three morphemes in Relformaiké—-oz-, -zol-, and -ad-—exhibit traits of the linguistic phenomenon known as Suffixaufnahme, German for "case stacking".


When two or more subjects are associated with an entity, -oz- tags all of them as "joint possessives" or "compound possessives". If the subjects share the same entity, then the comitative vek conjunction precedes the last subject:

Jaunozo vek Mariyoza pastèle (John and Mary's cake)
Jaunozo, Mariyoza, vek Jósefozo pastèle (John, Mary, and Joseph's cake)

If the subjects have at least one of the entities described, then ed is used instead; the entity noun must be pluralised.

Jaunozo sog Mariyoza pastèles (John's and Mary's cakes)
Jaunozo, Mariyoza, sog Jósefozo pastèles (John's, Mary's, and Joseph's cakes)

A similar situation happens with -zol-, as shown in this example:

Luma péstretat un'animaldauktera, Saint-Îvésenäuvvantzoli sepchonzoli móbilzolintu. (She met a lady veterinarian, bound for St. Ives with seven cats in her own car.)


In addition to its normal function as an indirect/dative marker, -ad- can also tag attributes associated with the indirect object of a sentence.

Ma pédonat l'aumbrado Bilbáonníveladi moza drevaudfabrière. (I gave my xylophone to the man from Bilbao.)
Ma pédonat l'aumbrado mũrgsátrokzoladi lumoza vailtenière. (I gave the man with the black hat her suitcase.)
Note Note:
The above examples were inspired by this reply by "Valdeut" (from a March 2016 discussion entitled "Basque's Surdéclinaison") at the zompist bboard.

Quotations and punctuation

Relformaiké is written similarly to English; its quotation marks («», wilémètes) are borrowed from French.

«Kiène lumbat?» pédézat la velaumbra.
«Bat mio, Róbairto,» péverjautat zanoza ńódro.
"Who is it?" said the old lady.
"It's me, Robert," replied her son.
«Mo nalperábilat króyar lumé jemp lo julgíeno pédézat, ‹Naule pointes!›» pédézat lo jouvíeno.
"I couldn't believe it when the judge said, 'Nul points!'" said the boy.

Otherwise, its punctuation system remains unchanged.

Lo zẽrdébo rókónat triga velrakis síblas—l'oantema sempritristi, la töuftema joiyeuzámeli, sog l'aulttema peuvénuyanti.
The fennec kit has three older sisters—one forever sad, another occasionally happy, and the last a slight bore.
Ma nalperaigat lumié, ma shũrat; unótriène péhaizat!
I didn't do it, I swear; someone else did!
Péhanat seuluna bíena mo péfídelábilat: Mísébozo velrákanti doselíena.
There was only one person I could trust: My own aging teacher.
Esane droalat... Esine móbile pékoutat nútrié ńoanarde ńiroaves (€1,000,000)?!
That's funny... This car cost us a million Euros (€1,000,000)?!


Precision is one of Relformaiké's main objectives, in that words and expressions (regardless of length) should be as free of ambiguities and semantic baggage as possible.

Filed under Sesquipedalian

p45: Sanity not guaranteed

Commonly cited as one of the longest words in English, pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis—defined as "a disease of the lungs caused by inhaling volcanic silica dust"—is actually a coinage devised by the U.S. National Puzzlers' League in 1935. Consisting of 45 letters (hence the code nickname "p45"), it contains the following morphemes:

  • pneumon (Greek for "lung")
  • ultra
  • microscopic
  • silico-
  • volcanic
  • konis (Greek for "dust")
  • -osis

"p45" is an extension of the more concise term pneumoconiosis (14 letters), whose simpler form is just the nine-letter silicosis. Relformaiké translates it to the 22-letter silíkóninzaidnïbbenide, or "illness caused by silicon" (silíkon-inz-aid-nid-ben-id-e; silicon-CAUS-PST.PTCP-not-well-condition-N). Lung disease, on the other hand, is peumaunnïbbenide (peumaun-nid-ben-id-e; lung-not-well-condition-N; 16 letters). An attempt to capture the essence of the original word results in


which is 29 letters—more than half the English counterpart's—and eight morphemes (silíkon-inz-aid-peumaun-nid-ben-id-e) in length.

Still long in the tooth

Through derivational and compounding methods, and on the basis of their original definitions, long words in various languages can receive Relformaiké equivalents.

  • A well-known English example, the 28-letter antidisestablishmentarianism, means "a movement opposing the separation of church and state". This becomes the similarly long
which comprises nine morphemes in total (díev=ǐ-kaz-tug-v-sivit-id-ódim-ain-e; God=BFR.IFX-house-ABL-go-state-QUAL-oppose-GER-N).
  • The 29-letter Latin-based coinage, floccinaucinihilipilification (the act of estimating something as worthless), turns into the 16-letter/six-morpheme
which consists of "val-sin-id-julg-ain-e" (worth-lack_of-QUAL-deem-GER-N).
  • Honorificabilitudinitatibus, a 27-letter Latin loan meaning "the ability to achieve honours", is found in Love's Labour's Lost by Shakespeare. Its Relformaiké equivalent, námuzǐganábilídé, comprises 15 letters and five morphemes (námuz=ǐ-gan-ábil-id-e; honour=BFR.IFX-win-ability-QUAL-N).
Note Note:
See also World Wide Words for more information on the terms profiled in the preceding two sections:

Which way to say it?

To have...or not to have

Consider the following sentence, taken from Wiktionary's entry for "have":

I have no German.

On the surface, it can be interpreted as one of several things:

  1. The speaker has no one from Germany living in their house.
  2. The speaker has no German heritage.
  3. The speaker cannot converse in the German language (the "have" in this example uses the Irish English sense of "speak a language").

Translated straight into Relformaiké, this becomes:

Mé naltenat Alémane.

Since the last word primarily refers to the country (and in some contexts, the language itself), one is led to believe that the speaker is missing the realm of Germany—perhaps as a piece of a map puzzle, or part of a souvenir collection. To clear things up, one can say instead:

Mé naltenat Alémaniènes. (I have no German people.)

Simply put, the speaker is declaring that no German people are at his house, or in his family tree. To be more specific, one can use:

Mé naltenat Alémaniènes mośkazadu/kazad madé. (I have no Germans at my [own] house.) (The speaker is referring to citizens of Germany. Also, note the indirect/dative pronoun at the end of the second form.)
Mé naltenat Alémanníveliènes mośkazadu/kazad madé. (I have no one from Germany at my house.) (The speaker is referring to those who come or hail from Germany, but were not necessarily born there.)

This can also be rendered as:

Aléman(nível)iènes nalmośkazadhábitat/nalhábitat mośkazadu. (No Germans live at my house.)

or the more morphologically complex:


which consists of 10 (or 11) uninterrupted morphemes à la Greenlandic et al. (nal-m-oz-kaz-ad-Aléman-[nível-]hábit-ièn-e-s), and retains the capital letter denoting a proper noun. Owing to their sheer length, these kinds of one-word sentences are all but infrequent in Relformaiké.

When speaking of one's lineage or heritage, this can be used:

Mé sinat Alémannesile./M'Alémannesilsinat. (I am without German lineage/descent. / I have no German ancestors.)

Finally, when referring to fluency, this statement captures the essence of the original Irish usage:

Mé nalparlábilat Alémane/l'Alémanlinge. (I cannot/can't speak German.)

Food from the sky?

In section 19c of his "Ranto" essay, Justin B. Rye posits this conundrum:

"...Does la fiŝoj estas bongustaj sed pluvas mean 'the fish are tasty but it's raining' or 'the fish are tasty but are falling as rain'?"

The same confusion carries over to the Relformaiké equivalent, Les pexines joalgustat, sed pleuvat. To differentiate, one should write Les pexines joalgustat, sed le pleuve toambat. (Pleuvat remains acceptable as a one-word weather statement.)

Dogs and cats

Wikipedia's Esperanto grammar page provides the English sentence, The dog chased the cat in the garden, as another example of ambiguity. In Esperanto and Relformaiké respectively, this becomes the equally ambiguous

La hundo ĉasis la katon en la ĝardeno. (EO)
Le kaine péstauzat le choné ńint le guerté. (RFM)

It is not easily evident whether the dog or cat resides in the garden, or the dog began chasing the cat somewhere else. Thanks to its case inventory, Relformaiké resolves the context problem in one of several ways:

  1. Le kaine guertníveli péstauzat le choné. (The dog comes from the garden itself.)
  2. Le kaine péstauzat le choné guertníveli. (The cat came from the garden.)
  3. Le kaine péstauzat le choné guerttranzu. (The chase began somewhere else, and the garden is part of the way.)
  4. Guertintádu, le kaine péstauzat le choné. (The chase is taking place within the garden.)

A friend in need...

Another ambiguous English sentence, I helped the boy with a spoon, is an audience-friendly version of an example discussed in this Linguistics Stack Exchange question from August 2015. Did the speaker help just the boy, or did they help him with the utensil? Instead of

Mé perauxilat lo jouvíeno vek une spoune.

Relformaiké clears things up with:

  1. Mé perauxilat lo jouvíeno spounzoli. (The boy is holding the spoon; proprietive intrafix.)
  2. Mé perauxilat lo jouvíeno spounwanu. (The speaker is feeding the boy, presumably a toddler; instrumental intrafix.)

All the king's horses...

In the same Stack Exchange question, a demonstration of Czech cases provides several forms of this statement:

Král Uher daroval koně. (The King of Hungary donated horses.)

In both Czech and Relformaiké, the context can change depending on the case in question; the focus here is on Uhry/Magyạre/Hungary.

Case Czech Relformaiké English
Ergative (SOV) + Dative Král Uhry daroval koňům. Lo Regíenibo Magyạre pédónat ékuinades. The King [of some other country] gave Hungary to the horses.
Genitive Král Uher daroval koně. Lo Regíeno Magyạrozi pédónat ékuines. The King of Hungary donated horses.
Dative Král Uhrám daroval koně. Lo Regíeno Magyạrade pédónat ékuines. The King donated horses to Hungary.
Instrumental Král Uhrami daroval koně. Lo Regíeno Magyạrwanu pédónat ékuines. The King used Hungary's assistance to donate horses.
Case Relformaiké English
Comitative Lo Regíeno Magyạrveku pédónat ékuines. The King teamed up with Hungary to donate horses.
Causal Lo Regíeno Magyạrinzaidu pédónat ékuines. The King donated horses thanks to Hungary.
Utilitive Lo Regíeno Magyạrpíru pédónat ékuines. The King donated horses so that Hungary could use them.
Benefactive Lo Regíeno Magyạrómistu pédónat ékuines. The horses were the King's gift to Hungary.
Antessive Lo Regíeno Magyạrprévu pédónat ékuines. Before Hungary pitched in, the King donated his share of horses.
Postcursive Lo Regíeno Magyạráprévu pédónat ékuines. After Hungary pitched in, the King donated his share of horses.
Egressive Lo Regíeno Magyạräppremu pédónat ékuines. The King donated horses across Central Europe, starting with a supply to Hungary.
Apudessive Lo Regíeno Magyạrproximu pédónat ékuines. The King donated horses near the Hungarian border.
Inessive Lo Regíeno Magyạrintu pédónat ékuines. The King donated horses while in Hungary.
Ablative Lo Regíeno Magyạrtúgu pédónat ékuines. The King donated the horses outside Hungarian territory.
Adessive Lo Regíeno Magyạrsinu pédónat ékuines. With no help from Hungary, the King donated the horses himself.
Exceptive Lo Regíeno Magyạrmoinu pédónat ékuines. The King donated the horses when Hungary wouldn't.
Inclusive Lo Regíeno Magyạrsógantu pédónat ékuines. The King donated horses, as did Hungary.
Immediate Lo Regíeno Magyạroantemu pédónat ékuines. The King donated the horses to Hungary first.
Exclusive Lo Regíeno Magyạrseulu pédónat ékuines. Only Hungary received the herd of horses the King donated.
Aversive/Evitative Lo Regíeno Magyạrévitu pédónat ékuines. The King donated horses, but couldn't cross the Hungarian border while carrying them.
Substitutive Lo Regíeno Magyạrpótalu pédónat ékuines. Since Hungary couldn't care less, the King donated the horses himself.
Concessive Lo Regíeno Magyạrmólenu pédónat ékuines. Hungary or no Hungary, the King went ahead with donating the horses.
Postulative Lo Regíeno Magyạrsifu pédónat ékuines. The King donated the horses as long as Hungary agreed to help.
Considerative Lo Regíeno Magyạrsélonu pédónat ékuines. Officials in Hungary said the King donated horses.

Wind speeds

The augmentative -eg- and its opposite -et- reduce many possible degrees of size to just three. Thus the triplet vento, vent-eto, vent-ego "wind, breeze, gale" replaces the entire Beaufort Scale...

[Also:] Can you use -et-eg-a and -eg-et-a to make finer distinctions of size?

—Geoff Eddy, "Why Esperanto is not my favourite language" (ca. 1998)

Using its size suffixes and -uit among other morphemes, Relformaide can form words corresponding to that scale's various levels as shown below:

BF# Description RFM term Affixes Notes
0 Calm naulsuflé naul-
1 Light air súflétuite -et-uit
2 Light breeze súflète -et
3 Gentle breeze súfléteade -et-ead
4 Moderate breeze súflétarde -et-ard
5 Fresh breeze súfleadète -ead-et
6 Strong breeze súfleade -ead
7 High wind, moderate/near gale súfleadarde -ead-ard
8 (Fresh) gale súfleaduite -ead-uit
9 Strong/severe gale súflardète -ard-et
10 Storm/whole gale súflardeade -ard-ead Also túpane
11 Violent storm súflarde -ard Also túpanarde
12 Hurricane force súflarduite -ard-uit Also sîgloane

Sample texts


Mé penzat, ẽrgim mé bat.
Renayo Descartes

I think, therefore I am.

—Réné Descartes

Le seulēsène més boulfoabat, bat le foabe séblumé.
Franklino Delano Roosevelt

The only thing we have to fear, is fear itself.

—Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Jautait nal jière ustozés sívite ńaigábilat ómist ustiés...sed jière ustés aigábilat ómist ustozés sívite.
Jauno F. Kennedy

Ask not what your country can do for you...but what you can do for your country.

—John F. Kennedy

Naumait mio ŃIshmáyelo.
Hẽrmano Melville, Moby-Dick

Call me Ishmael.

—Herman Melville, Moby-Dick

Dũr le prémaine, Díevo pébinzat le Zièle sog le Taire.
Génésize 1:1

In the beginning, God created the Heaven and the Earth.

—Genesis 1:1

Póvaud Díevo peraimuitat le Taire, jíer Lumo pédonat selbemié Lumozo seuli ríantaid'Ódro, jían kíenuite ńäukkróyat touƒSelbio nalfémoartat, sed fétenat fimsinvève.
Jauno 3:16

For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life.

—John 3:16

Saulme/Psalm 23

Une Saulme praz Daivido.
1 Dómeno bat moz'Ovilhirtíeno; mé nalfésinat.
2 Lumo répódinzat mié ńiak rógelis pastũres: Lum'ódigat mié korttranz les mouƒsināguades.
3 Lumo rënnoutinzat mozé zelme: Lum'ódigat mié tranz les jalanes dráneuzis ómist Lumozo naume.
4 Sid, mólen mé tranśhoulvat le lúgene dẽr le moarthólège, mé nalféfoabat malé: póvaud To vekat mié; Tozo paulke vek sópoartière trostinzat mié.
5 To prevvaulmat une tévole mifáselaupu, proxim mozés malamites: T'oindat mozé képale wan óleave; mozé taséninte tüfflúyardat.
6 Shũru joalide sog nerelide févekat mié toute les deites dẽr mozé vève: sog mé ferinthábitat le kaze dẽr Dómeno fimsinu.

Máfeulo/Matthew 6:9-13

9 ...Mozés Ríanto, Jíeno bat Zíelintu,
Sákrinzaidi bat Tozo Naume.
10 Tozo Regsívite venavat.
Tozo voule ńaigaidat Tairintu,
leiv selbé bat Zíelintu.
11 Donait míes noutdeitu mozés Deiti Fáloave;
12 sog nerelait míes mozés malaigés,
dũr més nerelat esanes jiène
malaigat proximad miés.
13 Sog ódigait miés nal aup malaigaije,
sed sauvait míes malévitu.
Póvaud Tozato le Regsívite,
le Póteste sog le Gloaride,
fimsinu sog touttíempu.

Oantemi Time/Article 1

Tout'aumbribiènes tuelaidat poveli sog adali ńint dignité sog lúgaines. Lumés éfoadaidat vek piré sog móralsábaine, sog aupaigaik shákótré ńint une zelmnande stel siblide.

Notes and references

  1. The past participle noun form, and not the past tense form.
  2. 2.0 2.1 A morpheme (or vókabtime in Relformaide) is the smallest unit of language; the study of morphemes is called morphology (vókabtánule).
  3. Obsolete in English since the 15th century, the word termison (or fimättime in Relformaide) has been adopted for use in this language's documentation. It is derived from the French terminaision, or "termination". See this definition page (imported from the Oxford English Dictionary) at
  4. Unless they are anthropomorphised, in which case the -o/-a endings apply.
  5. Comprising 5 roots, 10 affixes, and 1 affixoids; 3 of them are case markers.
  6. See also section 4.1 in "Proposed Guidelines for the Design of an Optimal International Auxiliary Language" by Richard K. Harrison, 2001 (9th draft):
    "The language should be designed so that all compounds can be unambiguously divided into their constituent morphemes, and so that no single morpheme can be mistaken for a combination of several morphemes. Confusion can occur if such auto-analysis is not designed into the language; for example, the Dutch word kwartslagen can mean 'quarter beats' (kwart + slagen) or 'quartz layers' (kwarts + lagen); the Esperanto word sukero might mean 'sugar' (suker + o) or 'a drop of juice' (suk + er + o). While it is true that context can usually indicate which meaning is intended, there is no reason for such morphemic ambiguity to exist in an optimal language design."
  7. Equivalent to English SBJ has PT-VB.
  8. Equivalent to English ... (is) going to/(is) about to VB; followed by a compound root, or gender/verbal termison.
  9. Equivalent to English ...that SBJ VB, or could/would/should.
  10. Taking a cue from Ido (an Esperanto spinoff), some Relformaide place names inherit the last -o/-a/-e of their original etymons; otherwise, -e follows the root in question.
  11. Also referred to as le Haulande (Holland).
  12. As Mark Rosenfelder notes in this Quechua primer, "'You' and 'they' are regular plurals, formed by adding the plural suffix to the singular pronouns. That's a regularity that didn't occur to the inventor of Esperanto!"
  13. 13.0 13.1 Only used in phrases such as "Ilo bant bóminzaid..." ("He's being held...")
  14. 14.0 14.1 *Baidar is ungrammatical in Relformaiké.
  15. 15.0 15.1 *Baidantar is ungrammatical in Relformaiké.
  16. 16.0 16.1 *Baidavar is ungrammatical in Relformaiké.
  17. von Möllendorff (1892), p. 10
  18. One of Relformaide's few palindromic words; a handful of palindromic roots also exist.
  19. Used in certain sentences with two or more subjects/objects.
  20. See Haspelmath (2006), p. 9
  21. Cf. French chez.
  22. Several directional suffixoids substitute the generic róvin placeholder when necessary:
    • -isk (left) — káziskad/kaśsueliskad (at the left side of the house)
    • -zusk (right) — kazzuskad/kaśsuelzuskad (at the right side of the house)
    • -fásel (front) — kazǐfasélad/kaśsuelfasélad (at the front side of the house)
    • -verfásel (back) — kazǐverfasélad/kaśsuelverfasélad (at the back side of the house)
    • -noard (north) — kaśnoardad/kaśsuelnoardad (at the north side of the house)
    • -sud (south) — kaśsúdad/kaśsuelsúdad (at the south side of the house)
    • -east (east) — kázeastad/kaśsueleastad (at the east side of the house)
    • -west (left) — kazwestad/kaśsuelwestad (at the west side of the house)
  23. This differs from -ráken, the superlative comparison suffix.
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 As Justin B. Rye jokes in "Onomastics", "If Esperanto participles were fully regular, the word esperanto would mean a temporary outbreak of hope, and Zamenhof's pen‐name would have been la Doktoro Esperantulo!"
  25. As Jespersen also noted,
    "Ido has here the verb mariajar 'to marry' with the derivatives mariajo or mariajeso 'marriage,' mariajatulo 'married man,' mariajatino 'married woman,' with the variants mariajitulo, mariajitino; mariajo-festo 'wedding'; further, the independent words spozo, spozulo, spozino for husband and wife. - Occ has maritagie, marito, marita, for 'married couple' maritates, for wedding (eheschliessung) maritagie, maritantie, and for 'married state' (ehestand) matrimonie. Novial thus gets off cheaper than either of these languages."
  26. "Lesson VII" in McGuffey (1896), p. 13
  27. "Lesson II" in McGuffey (1896), p. 8