Relformaide Dictionary:Stem change chart

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Summary of morpheme mutation in Relformaide

Standard morphemes
Pattern Last letter(s) Description
1a -(V/D)d/m/n/p/t/y No stem changes
1b -r(d/m/n/p/t), -l(d/m/n/p/t), -n(d/t), -mp No stem changes
1c -Cr, -g(m/n), -s(m/n) -C(m/n/r)i before next consonant; unchanged before next vowel or termison; if neuter, then termison follows
1d -(V/D)l -(V/D before morpheme with l as second or later letter; unchanged otherwise
1e -rl -rŕ before morpheme with l as second or later letter; unchanged otherwise
1f -Cl -Cŕ before morpheme with l, then 1c
1g -(V/D)r -(V/D)r before next -(V/D)r; otherwise 1a
1h -sp -spoṛ before next b/ch/d/f/g/j/k/p/s/t/v/z; otherwise 1a
1i -ft, -pt, -st -Ctoṛ before next b/ch/d/f/g/j/k/m/n/p/s/v/z; otherwise 1a
1j -kt -Ctoṛ before next b/ch/d/f/g/j/k/p/v; otherwise 1a
1k i l- Only followed by -e/-o/-a/-u termisons; -iruj + noun termison in emphatic statements; or (-i +) pronoun in emphatic reflexive pronouns (DEF)
1k ii m- mi- before next consonant; unchanged before next y, vowel, or termison (1)
1k iii t- Unchanged before next h/r/w/y, vowel, or termison; otherwise ti- before next consonant (2.FAM)
1k iv b- Unchanged before next l/r/w/y, vowel, or termison; otherwise bi- before next consonant (Verb: Be)
1k v v- Unchanged before next l/r/y, vowel, or termison; otherwise vi- before next consonant (Verb: Go)
1l nal- Unchanged before next b/h/l or vowel; otherwise naŕ- before next consonant, or b/h/vowel-initial morpheme with l as second or later letter (Negation)
1m pé-/plé-/fé- Lé- before next consonant; Ler- before next vowel (Tense Augments)
1n -e/-o/-a/-i/-u Marks the end of nouns (-e/-o/-a), adjectives (-i), and adverbs (-u) (Nominal Termisons)
1o - -ọ or -ạ termison after D[Ptn.]; otherwise -oḷ/-aḷ before next morpheme, or -oṛ/-aṛ before morpheme with l as second or later letter (Neutral Underdots)
1p -s Marks the end of plural nouns and adjectives (Plural Termison)
1q -ar/-at/-ant/-aid/-ait -es/-o(s)/-a(s) termisons optional in complex conjugations, except in -ait; for -ant/-aid, use 1a, 1n/1o (+ 1p), or U1b/U1a (Verbal Termisons)
1r -aik Use 1n/1o (+ 1p), 1q, or 9a; otherwise treat as termison (Conditional/Subjunctive)
2a -e(d/m/n/p/t/y) C before e termison; unchanged otherwise
2b -ie(d/m/p/t) No stem changes
2c -íe(m/n/t) -ièC before e termison; unchanged otherwise
2d -ue(d/m/n/p/t/y) No stem changes
2e -Cel -C before morpheme with l as second or later letter; otherwise 2a
2f -iel Use 2b
2g -íel -íeŕ before morpheme with l as second or later letter; otherwise 2a
2h -uel Use 2d
2i i -er -er before next -Vr; otherwise 2a
2i ii -ẽr -ẽr before next -Vr; otherwise 1a
2j -íer -íer before next -Vr; otherwise 2c
2k -uer -uer before next -Vr; otherwise 2d
3a i -(a/i/o/u)z
  • -Vś before next ch/h/k/m/n/p/s/t
  • -Vzoṛ before next b/d/f/g/j/v
  • -(au/io/uē)t before morpheme with z as second or later letter
  • Unchanged before next l/r/w/y/z, next vowel, or termison
  • For genitive -oz, use U3a i
3a ii -(au/ea/ei/éo/eu/oa/oi/ua/ui)z
  • -Dś before next ch/h/k/m/n/p/s/t
  • -Dzoṛ before next b/d/f/g/j/v
  • -(au/ea/ei)nt/-(éo/eu/oa/ua/ui)rt/-oift before morpheme with z as second or later letter
  • Unchanged before next l/r/w/y/z, next vowel, or termison
3a iii -ouz
  • -ouft before morpheme with z as second or later letter; otherwise 3a ii
  • As complex plural suffix, use U3a iii
3a iv -uez-
  • Denotes plural subjects for roots ending with b/d/f/g/k/p/t/v/z, and found mainly in complex formations; = U3a iv (CPLX.PL)
  • -üet/üer before morpheme with z as second or later letter
3b -(d/l/m/n/p/r/t/w)z
  • -Cś before next ch/h/k/m/n/p/s/t
  • -Czoṛ before next b/d/f/g/j/v
  • -CCy before morpheme with z as second or later letter
  • Unchanged before next l/r/w/y/z, next vowel, or termison
3c -ez -èz before e termison; -eit(o) before morpheme with z as second or later letter; otherwise 3a
3d -iez -ielt(o) before morpheme with z as second or later letter; otherwise 3a
3e -íez -ièz before e termison; -íelt(o) before morpheme with z as second or later letter; otherwise 3a
3f -óez -oèz before e termison; -óert(o) before morpheme with z as second or later letter; otherwise 3a
4 -ch
  • -choṛ before next b/ch/d/f/g/j/k/p/s/t/v/z
  • Unchanged before next h/l/m/n/r/w/y, next vowel, or termison
5a -(l/n/r/t/a/i/o/u)j
  • before g
  • -Ljoṛ before next b/ch/d/f/k/p/s/t/v/z
  • Unchanged before next h/j/l/m/n/w/y, next vowel, or termison
5b -aij Same as 5a, but with e termison (Prospective)
5c -ej -èj before e termison; otherwise 5a
5d -iej Use 5a
5e -íej -ièj before e termison; otherwise 5a
5f -uej Use 5a
6a -(l/n/r/a/i/o/u)v
  • -Lƒ before next ch/f/s/t/z
  • -Lɓ before next b
  • -Lɖ before next d
  • -Lɠ before next g
  • -Lʝ before next j
  • -Lӄ before next k
  • -Lþ before next p
  • Unchanged before next h/l/m/n/r/v/w/y, next vowel, or termison
6b -ev -èv before e termison; otherwise 6a
6c -iev Use 6a
6d -íev -ièv before e termison; otherwise 6a
6e -uev Use 6a
6f -vv -ƒƒ before next ch/s/t/z; -vvi before b/d/f/g/j/k/p/v; unchanged before next l, m, n, w, y, or vowel
7a -(l/m/n/r/a/i/o/u)b -Lboṛ before next g; unchanged otherwise
7b -eb -èb before e termison; otherwise 7a
7c -ieb Use 7a
7d -íeb -ièb before e termison; otherwise 7a
7e -ueb Use 7a
8a -(l/n/r/a/i/o/u)x -Lxoṛ before next b/d/g/j/s/v/z; unchanged otherwise
8b -ex -èx before e termison; otherwise 8a
9a -(l/n/r/a/i/o/u)k -Lkoṛ before next b/ch/d/f/g; unchanged otherwise
9b -ek -èk before e termison; otherwise 9a
9c -iek Use 9a
9d -sk -skoṛ before next s/sC; otherwise 9a
9e -uek Use 9a
10a -(l/m/n/r/a/i/u)f -Lѵ before next v; -Lfoṛ before next b/d/g/k; -Lfoṛ before next ku; unchanged otherwise
10b -ef -èf before e termison; otherwise 10a
10c -ief Use 10a
10d -uef Use 10a
11a -(l/n/r/a/i/o/u)g -Lĵ before next j; -Lgoṛ before next b/f; unchanged otherwise
11b -eg -èg before e termison; otherwise 11a
11c -ieg Use 11a
11d -ueg Use 11a
12a -Vh -Vhoṛ before next ch; unchanged otherwise
12b -eh -èh before e termison; otherwise 12a
Underdotted morphemes
D[Ptn.] Varies by original pattern Use of 1o overrides regular pattern rules (Mostly internationally recognised roots, but some others are determined on a case-to-case basis)
Umlaut morphemes
Pattern Morpheme change Next consonant last letter turns/doubles into / precedes
U1a abod → äbo- b/f/g/j/k/l/m/n/p/s/t/v/z; otherwise 1a
abod → äbon ch
aup → äu- b/d/f/g/j/k/m/n/s/t/v/z; otherwise 1a
aup → aün ch
évit → évï- b/d/f/g/j/k/l/m/n/p/s/v/z; otherwise 1a
évit → évïn ch
id → ï- b/f/k/l/m/n/p/t/v; otherwise 1a
id → ïn ch/g/j/s/z
jout → jöu- b/d/f/g/j/k/l/m/n/p/s/v/z; otherwise 1a
jout → jöur ch
kaut → käu- b/d/f/g/j/l/m/n/p/s/v/z; otherwise 1a
kaut → käur ch/k
mout → möu- b/d/f/g/j/k/l/p; otherwise 1a
mout → möur ch/m/n/s/v/z
nem- → në- l; otherwise 1a
-uit- → -üi-
  • b/d/f/g/j/k/l/m/n/p/s/v/z; otherwise 1a
  • After roots ending with b/d/f/g/k/p/t/v/x/z; other consonants take -oip
*orit → öri-
suorit → süori-
haporit → häpori-
b/d/f/g/j/k/l/m/n/p/s/v/z; otherwise 1a
*orit → örin
suorit → süorin
haporit → häporin
ch
seud → sëu- b/f/g/j/k/l/m/n/p/s/t/v/z; otherwise 1a
seud → sëur ch
tout → töu- l/m/n/s/z; otherwise 1a
tout → töur b/ch/d/f/g/j/k/p/v
vasit → väsi- b/d/f/g/j/k/l/m/n/p/v; otherwise 1a
vasit → väsin ch/s/z
U1b -ant → -än-
-asant → -äsan-
b/d/f/g/j/k/p/s/v/z; otherwise 1b
-ant → -änn
-asant → -äsann
ch
-ard → -är-
esard → ësar-
b/f/g/k/l/m/n/p/t/v; otherwise 1b
-ard → -ärn
esard → ësarn
ch/s/z
ault → äul- b/d/f/g/j/k/p/s/v/z; otherwise 1b
ault → äuls ch
ault → äulp l
eand → ëan-
nand → nän-
nend → nën-
b/f/g/j/k/p/s/t/v/z; otherwise 1b
eand → ëann
nand → nänn
nend → nënn
ch
int → ïn-
saint → säin-
b/d/f/g/j/k/p/s/v/z; otherwise 1b
int → ïnn ch
noard → nöar-
voard → vöar-
b/f/g/j/k/l/m/n/p/s/t/v/z; otherwise 1b
noard → nöarr
voard → vöarr
ch
ond → ön-
aibond → äibon-
b/f/g/j/k/p/s/t/v/z; otherwise 1b
ond → önn
aibond → äibonn
ch
sent → sën- b/d/f/g/j/k/p/s/v/z; otherwise 1b
sent → sënn ch
U1e hîdrol → hîdrö-
mîkrol → mîkrö-
b/d/f/g/j/k/m/n/p/r/s/t/v/z; otherwise 1e
U2e rel → rë- b/d/f/g/j/k/m/n/p/r/s/t/v/z; otherwise 2e
U3a i -oz → -ö- b/d/f/g/j/v; otherwise 3a i
-oz → -oś ch/h/k/m/n/p/s/t
U3a ii seiz → sëi-
siez → sïe-
vuiz → vüëi-
b/d/f/g/j/v; otherwise 3a ii
deiz → deiś
seiz → seiś
siez → sieś
vuiz → vuiś
ch/h/k/m/n/p/s/t
U3a iii -ouz → -öu- b/d/f/g/j/v (after ch/h/l/m/n/r/w/y); otherwise 3a ii (CPLX.PL)
-ouz → -öut Between ch/h/l/m/n/r/w/y and morpheme with s or z as second or later letter
-ouz → -ouś ch/h/k/m/n/p/s/t (after ch/h/l/m/n/r/w/y)
U3a iv -uez → -üe- b/d/f/g/j/v (after b/d/f/g/k/p/t/v); otherwise 3a ii (CPLX.PL)
-uez → -üer Between z and morpheme with s or z as second or later letter
-uez → -ueś ch/h/k/m/n/p/s/t (after b/d/f/g/k/p/t/v)
U3b tranz → trän- b/d/f/g/k/v; otherwise 3b
tranz → tranś ch/h/k/m/n/p/s/t
U3c trez → trëï- b/d/f/g/j/v; otherwise 3c
trez → treś ch/h/k/m/n/p/s/t
U6a suiv → süi-
tasiv → täsi-
m/n; otherwise 6a
U6b télev → télë- m/n; otherwise 6b
U7a voab → vöa- d/g/j/k/p/s/v/z; otherwise 7a
voab → vöar ch/f/m/n
U7b seb → së- g/s/z; otherwise 7b
U9b emek → ëme- b/d/f/g/j/p/s/v/z; otherwise 9b
emek → ëmen ch
U11 laung → läun- b/d/f/j/k/p/s/t/v/z; otherwise 11a
laung → läunn ch
tug → tü- b/d/f/j/k/p/s/t/v/z; otherwise 11a
tug → tür ch
kílog → kílö-
trig → trï-
b/d/f/j/k/m/n/p/s/t/v/z; otherwise 11a