Relformaide Dictionary:Grammar/Words and phrases

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← Precision Grammar of Relformaide:
Words and phrases
Sample texts →
Note Note:
This section is based on Mathews (1909), p. 281-284https://archive.org/details/jstor-659469, whose contents have been localised and updated for the Relformaide grammar. Several less audience-friendly terms mentioned in the original article, as well as some obscure ones, have been omitted here.

What follows below adheres to the principle stated by Mathews in his introduction to the word list of Dhudhuroa, a now-extinct Aboriginal language of Australia:

Words of a similar kind are placed under similar headings, in the hope that this classification will be found more convenient for reference than if arranged in alphabetic sequence. It is the equivalence of English words which will be most frequently required and therefore they are placed first.

General vocabulary

Articles

  • le/lo/la, les/los/las – the (def.)
  • une/uno/una – a/an (indf. sg.)
  • unes/unos/unas – some (indf. pl.)

Pronouns

Personal
  • /mo/ma – I
  • mié/mio/mia – me
  • més/mos/mas – we
  • miés/mios/mias – us
  • /to/ta – you (fam. sg. sbj.)
  • tié/tio/tia – you (fam. sg. obj.)
  • tés/tos/tas – you (fam. pl. sg.)
  • tiés/tios/tias – you (fam. pl. obj.)
  • usté/usto/usta – you (frml. sg. sbj.)
  • ustié/ustio/ustia – you (frml. sg. obj.)
  • ustés/ustos/ustas – you (frml. pl. sbj.)
  • ustiés/ustios/ustias – you (frml. pl. obj.)
  • lumo – he
  • lumio – him
  • luma – she
  • lumia – her
  • lumé – it (sbj.)
  • lumié – it (obj.)
  • lumés/lumos/lumas – they
  • lumiés/lumios/lumias – them
Possessive
  • mozé/mozo/moza – my
  • mozés/mozos/mozas – our
  • tozé/tozo/toza – your (fam. sg.)
  • tozés/tozos/tozas – your (fam. pl.)
  • ustozé/ustozo/ustoza – your (frml. sg.)
  • ustozés/ustozos/ustozas – your (frml. pl.)
  • lumozo – his
  • lumoza – her
  • lumozé – its
  • lumozés/lumozos/lumozas – their
Indirect
  • madé/mado/mada – me
  • madés/mados/madas – us
  • tadé/tado/tada – you (fam. sg.)
  • tadés/tados/tadas – you (fam. pl.)
  • ustadé/ustado/ustada – you (frml. sg.)
  • ustadés/ustados/ustadas – you (frml. pl.)
  • lumado – him
  • lumada – her
  • lumadé – it
  • lumadés/lumados/lumadas – them
Relative/Interrogative
  • jière, kière – what (sbj.)
  • jíerie, kíerie – what (obj.)
  • jíeroze, kíeroze – whose (inanim.)
  • jiène/jíeno/jíena, kiène/kíeno/kíena – who
  • jíenie/jíenio/jíenia, kíenie/kíenio/kíenia – whom
  • jíenoze/jíenozo/jíenoza, kíenoze/kíenozo/kíenoza – whose (anim.)
Demonstrative
  • esine/esino/esina – this
  • esane/esano/esana – that
  • esaune/esauno/esauna – yon

Verbs

  • bar – to be, to exist
  • var – to go, to travel
  • aigar – to do, to act
  • inzar – to cause
  • orjar – to force (upon an entity)
  • tenar – to have, to hold
  • zolar – to own, to possess
  • óbrar – to give
  • poadar – to offer, to propose
  • dostar – to get, to obtain, to acquire, to fetch
  • borgar – to borrow
  • borginzar – to lend
  • véyar – to see, to watch, to look (at)
  • audar – to hear, to listen
  • pomar – to smell
  • toagar – to touch (active/SVO), to feel (passive/OVS)
  • gustar – to taste
  • dezar – to say
  • addezar – to tell (someone)
  • parlar – to speak
  • krívar – to cry, to shout
  • mólitar – to pray
  • námúzar – to honour, to praise
  • kantar – to sing
  • vieslar – to whistle
  • jautar – to ask
  • verjautar – to answer, to reply, to respond
  • prósitar – to beg
  • lezar – to read
  • skríbar – to write
  • geplar – to type
  • hendar – to walk
  • vuelar – to run
  • danzar – to dance
  • sautar – to jump
  • voalar – to fly
  • sliedar – to slide
  • sliepar – to slip
  • slievar – to slither
  • plaunjar – to dive
  • noagelar – to swim
  • streavar – to climb
  • äulvvar – to rise, to go up, to ascend
  • toambar – to fall
  • úlemvar – to descend, to go down, to sink
  • rester – to stay
  • shimar – to put upon a surface, to place something on
  • prendar – to take
  • poartar – to carry, to bring
  • bemar – to buy
  • proadar – to sell
  • mitar – to send
  • aimar – to love, to adore
  • ódímar – to hate, to detest
  • aubogar – to support, to advocate
  • oponar – to oppose
  • vevar – to live, to be alive
  • moartar – to die
  • nendar – to add
  • moinar – to subtract, to take out, to reduce, to decrase, to mitigate
  • puemar – to divide, to split
  • razar – to multiply, to copy, to duplicate, to imitate
  • ótrinzar – to change, to alter
  • erivar – to erase, to delete, to wipe out, to trash
  • premar – to start, to begin, to commence
  • pauzar – to pause, to stop
  • térúzar – to continue, to resume
  • fímar – to finish, to end, to conclude
  • aubelar – to cease ([doing] an action) completely
  • aisómar – to accomplish, to fulfill
  • aistar – to make, to produce
  • teremar – to yield
  • lanzar – to throw
  • doalar – to hurt, to harm, to injure, to damage, to ruin
  • verdoalar – to fix, to repair
  • yẽrtar – to hit, to beat, to slap, to strike
  • taugar – to break
  • gontar – to chop
  • hildar – to fight
  • kuibar – to steal
  • stauzar – to hunt, to chase, to pursue, to follow
  • paufar – to shoot (at)
  • moarzar – to kill, to murder
  • moarjar – to execute
  • progónar – to prosecute, to discriminate
  • kastigar – to punish, to scold, to chastise
  • ódígar – to lead, to guide, to drive (transportation)
  • nímelar – to control
  • gómar – to hide, to conceal
  • vergómar – to reveal, to expose
  • podálar – to stand (up)
  • duekar – to sit
  • doarmar – to sleep
  • hoalmar – to dream
  • velmar – to strive, to aspire, to aim for
  • lorgar – to look for, to search for, to seek
  • trouvar – to find
  • sauvar – to save, to rescue, to deliver from
  • pogar – to try
  • prouvar – to prove, to verify
  • holómar – to succeed
  • haulemar – to fail
  • joalinzar – to improve, to ameliorate
  • joalausmar – to improve (by oneself), to get/become better
  • málinzar – to worsen (something), to deteriorate (something), to botch up
  • málausmar – to worsen (by oneself), to deteriorate (by oneself), to get/become worse
  • sabar – to know
  • penzar – to think
  • chembar – to forget
  • verchembar – to remember
  • spírar – to breathe
  • súflar – to blow
  • flérar – to cry/shed tears, to weep, to sob
  • suigar – to suck (up)
  • soustar – to bite
  • cholgar – to spit
  • puxelar – to vomit, to throw up
  • soamar – to make love (to), to copulate (with), to mate (with)
  • tuelar – to give birth, to bear children
  • puadar – to hug, to embrace
  • suavar – to kiss
  • lúzar – to shine
  • ziginar – to shake
  • wulobar – to shiver

Adjectives

  • joali – good
  • mali – bad, evil
  • froli – happy, joyful
  • nïffroli – sad, unhappy
  • beni – well
  • osivi – sick
  • broigi – angry
  • krúli – cruel
  • houtanti – greedy, excessive
  • grandi – big, large, huge
  • aubimi – small
  • mîkróli – tiny
  • aulti – high, up
  • úlemi – low, down
  • proximi – near, short
  • proxami – far, long
  • proxaumi – beyond
  • podáli – tall (in height)
  • touti – full, complete, whole
  • aibemi – equal
  • oidi, ausiki – similar
  • ótri - different
  • ondi – empty, barren
  • nidhini, nidhani – absent
  • jouti – sudden, unexpected
  • vasiti – deliberate, intentional
  • tasivi – accidental
  • tezi – fast, quick
  • vertezi – slow
  • foarti – strong
  • troafi – weak
  • naulvéyi – blind
  • naulaudi – deaf
  • nauŕhendi – lame
  • vasimi – tired, weary, sleepy
  • hugeli – brave, courageous
  • foabeuzi – afraid, scared, fearful
  • drani – right, correct
  • nïddrani – wrong, incorrect
  • voardi – true, genuine
  • seudi – false, fake
  • meavi – fat, thick, dense
  • nidmeavi – lean, thin, meagre, sparse
  • jomi – pregnant, with child
  • holómi – successful
  • haulemi – unsuccessful, failed
  • velmi – ambitious, aspiring, zealous
  • húviti – interested, eager
  • váli – worthy
  • válondi – worthless, good-for-nothing

Adverbs

  • hinu – here
  • hanu – there
  • haunu – yonder, over there
  • mesmu – even, especially

Colours

  • roube – red
  • blouve – blue
  • flauvé – yellow
  • rógèle – green
  • roubblouve – purple
  • ouranjé – orange
  • roubeusmé – pink
  • broute – brown
  • shoule – white
  • noule – black

Family terms

  • aumbré – human
  • aumbro – man
  • aumbra – woman
  • èbe – baby, newborn
  • ebo/eba – baby boy/girl
  • ède – youngster, kid, tyke, lad
  • edo – boy
  • eda – girl
  • eshoane – teenager, adolescent
  • eshoano/eshoana – teenage boy/girl
  • eushèle – adult, grownup
  • eushelo/eushela – man/woman (of any species)
  • elde – old person, elder, senior
  • eldo/elda – old man/old lady
  • gauné – relative
  • gauntruze – family
  • fraule – spouse
  • fraulo – husband
  • fraula – wife
  • ríante – parent
  • ríanto – father, dad
  • ríanta – mother, mom
  • tepríante – grandparent
  • tepríanto – grandfather, granddad
  • tepríanta – grandmother, grandma
  • ódré – child, offspring, progeny
  • ódro – son
  • ódra - daughter
  • siblé – sibling
  • siblo – brother
  • sibla – sister
  • siblódré – nibling
  • siblódro – nephew
  • siblódra – niece
  • ríablé – parent's sibling
  • ríablo/ríabla – aunt/uncle
  • ríablódré – cousin
  • ríablódro/ríablódra – male/female cousin
  • fraulríante – parent-in-law
  • fraulríanto – father-in-law
  • fraulríanta – mother-in-law
  • frauŕsiblé – sibling-in-law
  • frauŕsiblo – brother-in-law
  • frauŕsibla – sister-in-law
  • amite/amito/amita – friend
  • aimamite – significant other
  • aimamito – boyfriend
  • aimamita – girlfriend

Body parts

  • tũrgene – body
  • yovèle – bone
  • górane – blood
  • nũrite - nerve
  • mausèle – muscle
  • mũrite – organ
  • pièle – skin
  • kepale – head
  • élogkepale – forehead
  • kromele – beard
  • vorite – eye
  • porite – nose
  • lúvane – neck
  • trakèle – throat
  • dorite – ear
  • morite – mouth
  • sorite – tooth
  • gorite – tongue
  • suorite – lip
  • foaraxe – chest
  • mame – bosom, mammae
  • mindrạ – navel
  • staumake – stomach, belly, tummy
  • jurèke – heart
  • peumaune – lungs
  • grúfane – liver
  • vúdele – back
  • voaleande – wing (of a bird or bat)
  • jásène – arm, limb
  • gúvite – elbow
  • spạdane – shoulder
  • mène – hand
  • troade – leg
  • aulttroade – thigh
  • gaskote – calf
  • jenoule – knee
  • chevile – ankle
  • kuode – foot
  • hiele – heel
  • jírite – digit
  • menjírite – finger
  • kuodjírite – toe
  • trèpe – tail (of an animal)
  • muge – bottom
  • kale – excrement

Natural world

Entities

  • Tairoke – nature, ecosystem
  • Taire – Earth
  • Solé – the Sune
  • Loune – the Moon
  • zièle – sky
  • laufe – air
  • laufarde – atmosphere
  • astrèle – star
  • hîdrole – water
  • brúlière – fire
  • fumé – smoke
  • holège – shadow
  • húmine – ground, soil
  • toapé – stone
  • saiblé – sand
  • brullesmé – lava

Landforms

  • poaldère – polder
  • róvine – plain
  • aultróvine – plateau
  • lófé – hill
  • lófarde – mountain
  • vaulkène – volcano
  • fálaife – cliff

Weather

  • framzère – weather
  • brúli – hot
  • chouli – cold
  • waurmi – warm
  • súflière – wind
  • kamege – storm
  • trúmèle – thunder
  • trúmelluze – lightning
  • sîgloane – tropical cyclone, hurricane, typhoon)
  • zíelvóraune – tornado, twister
  • pleuve – rain
  • pleuvète – shower
  • tuarène – fog
  • nívine – snow
  • siklète – frost
  • hoagèle – hail
  • onikkũrve – rainbow

Living things

Animals
  • animale – animal
  • tuere – creature
  • tuerède – cub, whelp (of mammals); chick (of birds)
Mammals
  • mamiftuere – mammal
  • nâye – dog
  • loupe – wolf
  • vaulpe – fox
  • zẽrde – fennec
  • dingone – dingo
  • nèke – cat
  • simbale – lion
  • tigère – tiger
  • dumale – cheetah
  • balame – jaguar
  • youlane – genet
  • ródente – rodent
  • mórine – mouse
  • kualike – rat
  • krisèle – hamster
  • poargé – guinea pig
  • eskũre – squirrel
  • voaleskũre – flying squirrel
  • jidale – chipmunk
  • sínome – prairie dog
  • aurvíkole – water vole
  • herisone – hedgehog
  • hustrike – porcupine
  • sorèxe – shrew
  • mefite – skunk
  • bausone – badger
  • gúlove – wolverine
  • dúbime – bear
  • chusèle – panda
  • lapine – rabbit
  • gulèpe – hare
  • síbane – raccoon
  • doabrane – otter
  • mostèle – weasel
  • miegale – ferret
  • boavé – cattle
  • boavo – bull
  • boava – cow
  • búfale – buffalo
  • kabrite – goat
  • óvile – sheep
  • puerché – pig, swine
  • chíroté – bat
  • hafile – elephant
  • protévone – primate
  • simiane – monkey
  • pífike – ape
  • chimpanzé – chimpanzee
  • orangutane – orangutan
  • kangaroune – kangaroo
  • waularoune – wallaroo
  • waulabine – wallaby
  • mákrote – bilby
  • kuokale – quokka
  • kóale – koala
  • maníkoule – North American opossum
  • díluge – Australian possum
  • yagule – bandicoot
  • daurumbé – kangaroo rat
Birds
  • noave – bird
  • poale – chicken
  • koulombe – dove
  • píjaune – pigeon
  • híraunde – swallow
  • jaurike – pelican
  • signé – swan
  • koarvé – crow
  • soroké – magpie
  • aguile – eagle
  • kũruane – crane
  • blouvnoave – bluebird
  • noulnoave – blackbird
  • lipsnèle – robin
  • ordèke – duck
  • nẽrlèke – goose
  • múrove – ostrich
  • gourane – curlew
  • míoure – emu
  • choike – rhea
  • kiwine – kiwi
  • kasúaire – cassowary
  • kaukatouve – cockatoo
  • suarive – parrot
  • baujerigé – budgerigar
Fishes
  • vueme – fish
  • cháfoine – sardine
  • pajaule – shark
  • jóroune – tuna
  • penfrèle – cod
Reptiles
  • reptile – reptile, scalie
  • nakauze – snake
  • lusẽrte – lizard
  • gekone – gecko
  • lieguané – iguana
Invertebrates
  • insekte – insect
  • pagite – larva
  • mouché – housefly
  • chitime – mosquito
  • yúkane – louse
  • chápoale – grasshopper
  • maŕchápoale – locust
  • sënkkuode – centipede
  • kílökkuode – millipede
  • pilipale – butterfly
  • pilipagite – caterpillar
  • eskạrgé – snail
  • lesmé – slug
Plants
  • plante – plant
  • poazène – grass
  • flũre – flower
  • tovale – weed
  • yéronbe – currant
  • wũrite – peppermint
Trees
  • aibũre - tree
  • drevabode – wooded area
  • foareste – forest
  • fóline – tree leaf
  • paume – palm tree
  • tusame – pine
  • chesnèle – oak

Food and drink

  • mongaurde – food and drink
  • mankar – to eat
  • mankaurde – food
  • bevar – to drink
  • bevaurde – drink, beverage
  • chúzar – to cook
  • chúzaine – meal
  • oajẽrde – juice
  • soadạ – soda, soft drink
  • leché – milk
  • húyène – egg
  • fáloave – bread
  • wistèle – pancake
  • esome – fruit
  • drúvène – grape
  • drauvène – raisin
  • sakũre – cherry
  • boabule – berry
  • baunane – banana
  • aniane – pineapple
  • tapaule – apple
  • fazole – bean
  • zelène – vegetable
  • bresike – cabbage
  • mekuane – pumpkin
  • dumèle – honey
  • korzène – spice
  • gustinzeande – seasoning
  • hẽrbe – herb
  • saulte – salt
  • pímente – pepper

Time

  • maurve – time
  • kloché – clock
  • menkloché – watch
  • klochlezar – to tell time
  • sekite – second
  • minite – minute
  • haurite – hour
  • dième – day
  • froditime – morning
  • mẽrkdième – noon, midday
  • sẽrtdième – afternoon
  • fronochime – evening
  • nochème – night
  • mẽrknochème – midnight
  • sẽrtnochème – late night
  • houtnochème – overnight
  • tídène – week
  • sefime – weekend
  • masine – month
  • anove – year
  • deyānove – decade
  • sentanove – century
  • kíloganove – millennium
  • maurvarde – era, epoch
  • nodemu – today
  • nouchemu – tonight
  • vüëiddíemu – yesterday
  • suiɖdíemu – tomorrow

Transportation

  • poartière – vehicle
  • houbène – highway
  • jalane – road, path, way
  • strouze – street
  • lójale – railway
  • móbile – car, automobile
  • bauze – bus
  • kamíaune – truck, lorry
  • ségaune – wagon
  • voaŕineale – airplane
  • lójile – railroad car
  • plova – boat
  • plovarda – ship
  • kanova – canoe

Weapons

  • fúsile – gun
  • spafạ – sword
  • tuekière – spear
  • nábute – club
  • boumerange – boomerang

Given names

Male

  • Adamo – Adam
  • Jauno – John
  • Wilemo – William
  • Máfeulo – Matthew
  • Mărko – Mark
  • Lúko – Luke
  • Jaimzo – James
  • Jâkaubo – Jacob
  • Éduardo – Edward
  • Róbairto – Robert
  • Bobino – Bobby, Bob

Female

  • Anya – Anne, Anna
  • Eliezabefa – Elizabeth
  • Emiliya – Emily
  • Kaita – Kate
  • Mariya – Mary
  • Judiya – Judy
  • Samanfa – Samantha
  • Sofiya – Sophia, Sophie

Place names

Continents

  • Áfrika – Africa
  • Aiźa – Asia
  • Austrailída – Australia
  • Ámerika – America
    • NoardÁmerika – North America
    • SudÁmerika – South America
  • Íroape – Europe
  • Ăntărtika – Antarctica

Oceans

  • Ătlăntike – the Atlantic
  • Pásifike – the Pacific
  • Indíloze – the Indian Ocean

Regions

  • Karibine – the Caribbean
  • Ărtike – the Arctic

Countries

Americas
  • Oanizaidis Sivittimes – United States
  • Kánaida – Canada
  • Mexiko – Mexico
  • Kaustarika – Costa Rica
  • Kŭba – Cuba
  • Jămăika – Jamaica
  • Dauminíka – Dominica
  • Bărbăidos – Barbados
  • Trinidade nend Tobaigo – Trinidad and Tobago
  • Brasile – Brazil
  • Aujenabode – Argentina
  • Chilé – Chile
Europe
  • Oanizaidi Kimúzème – United Kingdom, Great Britain
  • Gálige – Ireland
  • Franze – France
  • Maunako – Monaco
  • Espane – Spain
  • Poartugale – Portugal
  • Alémane – Germany
  • Helvẹte – Switzerland
  • Magyạre – Hungary
  • Ítalida – Italy
  • Chèke – Czech Republic
  • Slovakida – Slovakia
  • Slovênida – Slovenia
  • Kroâzida – Croatia
  • Dăinmărke – Denmark
  • Suidène – Sweden
  • Suomé – Finland
  • Noarwâye – Norway
  • Îslande – Iceland
  • Rauźa – Russia
  • Kazakhé – Kazakhstan
Asia
  • Tũrkiede – Turkey
  • Isráyèle – Israel
  • SaudozẠraibida – Saudi Arabia
  • Írake – Iraq
  • Írane – Iran
  • Indíla – India
  • Pakistane – Pakistan
  • Chîna – China
  • Korieva – Korea
    • NoardKorieva – North Korea
    • SudKorieva – South Korea
  • Japaune – Japan
  • Filipines – Philippines
  • Mălăive – Malaysia
  • Singapoare – Singapore
  • Indonieza – Indonesia
Africa
  • Êjipte – Egypt
  • Soudane – Sudan
  • Aljerida – Algeria
  • Morauko – Morocco
  • Senegale – Senegal
  • Găna – Ghana
  • Nîjairida – Nigeria
  • Nîjaire – Niger
  • Kameroune – Cameroon
  • NoardKaungo – Congo-Brazzaville
  • SudKaungo – Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Kenya – Kenya
  • Tanzanida – Tanzania
  • Angola – Angola
  • Bautsuana – Botswana
  • SudÁfrika – South Africa
  • Malgashèle – Madagascar
  • Mauriezabode – Mauritius
Oceania
  • Austrailída – Australia
  • NouƒZêlande – New Zealand
  • Fíjine – Fiji
  • ÁmerikośSamoava – American Samoa
  • WestoṛSamoava – Samoa

Languages

  • Ingile – English
  • Gálige – Irish
  • Franze – French
  • Espane – Spanish
  • Poartugale – Portuguese
  • Alémane – German
  • Ítalé – Italian
  • Rauźé – Russian
  • Magyạre – Hungarian
  • Súomé – Finnish
  • Tũrkiede – Turkish
  • Ạraibe – Arabic
  • Hiebrouve – Hebrew
  • Hindine – Hindi
  • Mandạrine – Mandarin Chinese
  • Japaune – Japanese
  • Indonieze – Indonesian
  • Suahiline – Swahili
  • Malgashèle – Malagasy
  • Guaranive – Guarani
  • Esperlinge – Esperanto
  • Ĭdo – Ido
  • Laujiklinge – Lojban

Expressions

  • Sálout – Hello/Hi (there)
  • Salout, maundté!Hello, world!
  • Benvenat – Welcome
  • Joaldíem – Good day
  • Joalfroditim – Good morning
  • Joalsẽrtdíem – Good afternoon
  • Joalfronochim – Good evening
  • Joalnochem – Good night
  • Joaltüvv – Bye/Goodbye
  • Joaleriv – Good riddance
  • Sẽrtat – Later
  • Benat-té? – How are you (doing)?
  • Mé benat. – (I'm) fine.
  • Joalausikat. – Sounds good.
  • Kière tośnaumat? – What is your name?
  • Mozé naume bat... – My name is...
  • Kière ńaigat-to? – What are you doing?
  • Kabodu ńäuvvat-te? – Where are you going?
  • Prósim – Please
  • Dolchat – Thank you
  • Guefóraid – You're welcome
  • Mozé kroagineale ńanguileuzat.My hovercraft is full of eels.
← Precision Grammar of Relformaide:
Words and phrases
Sample texts →