Relformaide Dictionary:Grammar/Word formation/Examples

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Relformaide words change meanings based on the termison and/or prefix, as shown in this paradigm for ótr- ("other/different"). As with most adjective-based roots, ótr- employs all five uniliteral termisons—plus the verbal ones—in its simplest form. (It becomes ńótr- when placed after a vowel.)

With termisons
Grammatical form Termison Word Meaning
Noun Neuter -e ótré another one
Masculine -o ótro another one (masculine)
Feminine -a ótra another one (feminine)
Adjective -i ótri different
Adverb -u ótru differently
Verb Infinitive -ar ótrar to be different; to differ
Indicative -at ótrat SBJ is different; SBJ differs
Perfect -av-at ótravat SBJ has been different
Prospective -aij-at ótraijat SBJ is about to be different
Conditional / Subjunctive -aik ótraik SBJ ought to differ
Imperative -ait ótrait Be different! Stand out!
Progressive -ant ótrant SBJ is differing
Continuative -asant ótrasant SBJ is still different
Past Participle -aid ótraid[1] been different
With prefixes
Grammatical form Prefix Word Meaning
Negation Verbal nal- nalótrat SBJ is not different; SBJ is the same
Nominal nem- nemótrat SBJ is not among those who are different; SBJ is homogeneous
Iterative rel- relótrat SBJ is different again
Volitive soul- soulótrat SBJ wishes to be different
Desiderative voul- voulótrat SBJ wants to be different
Debitive (Necessitative) boul- boulótrat SBJ needs to be different
Tense Present Ø- ótrat SBJ is different; SBJ differs
Recent Past nupé- ~ nuper- nuperótrat SBJ was just different
Simple Past pé- ~ per- perótrat SBJ was different
Discontinuous Past plé- ~ pler- plerótrat SBJ used to be different
Future fé- ~ fer- ferótrat SBJ will be different
Future in the Past pé-fé ~ pé-fer- péferótrat SBJ would be different

This next paradigm demonstrates the similar versatility of the animate root, ed- (young). (It becomes ńed- when placed after a vowel.)

Word Affix(es) Meaning
Word/Phrase Affix(es)
Basic words
ède[2] -e youngster, youth, youngling, child, kid, tyke neuter noun
edo -o boy masculine noun
eda -a girl feminine noun
edi -i young adjective
edu -u youngly (Rare) adverb
edar -ar to be young infinitive verb
Compound words
édausmé -ausm-e the younger comparative + neuter
édausmi -ausm-i younger comparative + adjective
édausome -ausom-e the youngest superlative + neuter
édausomi -ausom-i youngest superlative + adjective
edómisti -ómist-i children's dedicated to + adjective
édeuzi -euz-i youthful full of + adjective
édeuzu -euz-u youthfully full of + adjective
édide[2] -id-e youth state/condition + neuter
ednandu -nand-u as a child, while young as... + adverb
reledi rel-R-i young again again + young + adjective
relédinzar rel-R-inz-ar to rejuvenate again + young + cause + infinitive verb
relédinzière rel-R-inz-íer-e the Fountain of Youth again + young + cause + agent + neuter
ódrède ódr-R-e young offspring/progeny child + young + neuter
tuerède tuer-R-e cub, whelp, young creature creature + young + neuter
úvelède úvel-R-e young step-relative step- + young + neuter
oajanède oajan-R-e young god-relative god- + young + neuter
Ámeríkíenèdes Ámerik-íen-R-e-s "Kids in America" America + demonym + young + neuter + plural

Words in Relformaide can be formed from existing morphemes based on attribute, thus reducing the need for different roots when necessary. These charts, dealing with the inanimate vey- ("see") and related veiz- (show)/vorit- (eye), demonstrate the language's derivational versatility.

Word Affix(es) Meaning
Word Affix(es)
Verbs (with infinitive -ar)
véyar see, watch, view
véyetar -et glance a little
véyardar -ard stare a lot
véyaidar -aid be seen; appear past participle
véyondar -ond be blind without
naŕvéyar nal- not see/notice (something) verb negator
prevvéyar prev- foresee, preview before
évïvvéyar évit- ignore, disregard avoid
advéyar ad- look at, admire at something/someone
äuvvéyar aup- face (something/someone), look toward(s) toward(s)
sebvéyar seb- look at oneself self
shoarvéyar shoar- see each other, stare face-to-face each other
intäuvvéyar int-aup- peer (at) in + towards (into)
tränvvéyar tranz- scan through
wegvéyar weg- shun off/away from
Nouns (with neuter -e)
vèye sight (act of seeing)
véyaide -aid sight (something seen) past participle
veyábilidé -ábil-id vision able to... + state of
véyaine -aine insight the result of...
véyiène -íen watcher, looker, seer someone who...
véyondide -ond-id blindness without + state of
veyúbèle úbel- bad vision, poor eyesight bad
prevvèye prev- foresight, preview before
févèye fé- outlook future tense marker
véyaurode -aurod lookout, vantage point, observatory place
veyäurffásine -aurd-fásin videotape, videocasette, VHS for purpose + tape
véyeande -eand glasses tool
véyeandiène -eand-íen optician tool + occupation
sebvéyaide seb-R-aid reflection self + see + past participle
sebvéyeande seb-R-eand mirror self + see + tool
Adjective/Adverb (with -i/-u)
véyi -i visual
véyondi -ond-i blind without
véyu -u visually
véyondu -ond-u blindly without
Word Affix(es) Meaning
Word Affix(es)
veizar -ar show, display, demonstrate infinitive verb
veize -e show, demonstration neuter noun
Word Affix(es) Meaning
Word Affix(es)
Nouns (with neuter -e)
vorite eye
voritiène -íen oculist, eye doctor occupation...
voritosivaine -osiv-ain glaucoma, eye disease sick + resulting from
tuarenvorite tuaren- cataract fog
lounvorite loun- moon blindness, night blindness moon
drautvorite draut- dry eye dry
vörisshoule -shoul sclera white

This chart for the inanimate verbal root lẽrn- (learn) highlights the affixational differences between Esperanto, a well-known constructed language, and Relformaide itself.

Affix(es) Word Meaning
lern' lẽrn- Root
-i -ar lerni lẽrnar to learn
-ad -ant lernadi lẽrnantar " study
-eg -ard lernegi lẽrnardar " cram
-ig -inz lernigi lẽrninzar " cause to learn
-iĝ -iz lerniĝi lẽrnizar " learn intuitively
-et lerneti lẽrnetar " dabble in learning
dis- -úbel dislerni lẽrnúbelar " learn in a desultory manner
ek- -prem eklerni lẽrnpremar " begin to learn
el- shoum- ellerni shoumlẽrnar " learn thoroughly
mal- ver- mallerni verlẽrnar " unlearn
re- rel- relerni rellẽrnar " learn again
-ant -ant-(e/o) lernanto lẽrnante, lẽrnanto a pupil, a learner (neut./masc.)
-ant-in -ant-a lernantino lẽrnanta a pupil, a learner (fem.)
-ej-an -íen-o lernejano lẽrníeno a schoolboy
-ej-an-in -íen-a lernejanino lẽrníena a schoolgirl
ge-R-ant-o-j -íen-e-s gelernantoj lẽrniènes pupils (masc. and fem.)
-ant-ar -ant-truz lernantaro lẽrnanttruze a class
-ej -abod lernejo lẽrnaurode a school (EO); a learning institution (RFM)
-ej-et -abod-et lernejeto lẽrnaurodète an elementary school (EO); a small learning institution (RFM)
-ej-ar -abod-truz lernejaro lẽrnäbottruze a university (EO); a cluster of learning institutions (RFM)
-ul -av-(e/o) lernulo lẽrnave, lẽrnavo a learned person, a learned man, a savant
-ul-in -av-a lernulino lẽrnava a learned woman, a "blue stocking"
-aĵ lernaĵo knowledge (EO)[3]
-il -eand lernilo lẽrneande intelligence (EO); flashcard (RFM)
-ind -val lerninda lẽrnvali worth learning
-o -e lerno lẽrne act or action of learning
-ebl -aibil lernebla lẽrnaibili learnable
-ec -aid-id lerneco lẽrnaidide learnedness
-em -anfel lernema lẽrnanfeli studious
-er aurd-esim lernero lẽrnaurdesime a subject of a curriculum
-ar aurd-truz lernaro lẽrnäurttruze a curriculum
-a -i lerna lẽrni learned (EO); associated with acts of learning (RFM)
-e -u lerne lẽrnu learnedly (EO); in the manner of an act of learning (RFM)
-u -ait lernu! lẽrnait! learn!

This declension chart for the inanimate root oben- ("house"; ńoben- post-vowel) is another example of Relformaide's agglutinative nature. Relformaide has an array of affixes and affixoids corresponding to more than 80 grammatical cases found in various natural and constructed languages (whether single or compound), as well as a handful conceived for Relformaide itself.

Whereas cases in various languages are placed after their host root, those in Relformaide act as postpositional mesoclitics between the root and termison. The intrafixes -ieb-, -iz-, -orz-, -oz-, and -únet-, plus the -u suffix (and the -i- in accusative pronouns), are the language's only bound case markers; -eun- and -e(s) mark topics and singularity/plurality respectively; and -ouz- (otherwise represented as -uez-) represents a plural subject before case particles.

Case Abbr. Suffix Derivation Meaning
Singular Plural
Subject NOM
-e obène obènes (the) house(s)
Topic -eune obenēune obenēunes as for/speaking of the house(s)
Ergative ERG -iebe obeniebe obeniebes done by the house(s) (passive agent)
Appositive[4] APP -erije obenerije obenerijes ...which is the house
Dative DAT -ade obenade obenades (to) the house(s)
Partitive PART -únète obenúnète obenúnètes part of the house(s)
Vocative Familiar VOC -té obenté obentés O house(s)
Formal -usté obenusté obenustés O house(s)
Adverbial/Functive ADV/FUN -u obenu in the manner/way of a house; like a house
GEN -oze obenoze obenozes (the) house's/houses'
POSS -orze obenorze obenorzes associated with the house(s)
Proprietive Inalienable PROP -zol obenzol obenouzzol ...with the house(s) (as part of someone's belongings);
owning the house(s)
Alienable -ten obenten obenouśten ...with the house(s) temporarily, having houses
Ornative ORN -abuam obenabuam obenouzabuam endowed/equipped with a house/houses,
provided a house/houses (by a donor)
-emek obenemek obenouzēmek with (the help of) the house(s), using the house(s) (for a task or purpose); by way of/via/through the house(s); house-wise
Utilitative UTL -útil obenútil obenouzútil using the house (but not for any task or purpose)
Applicative/Purposive (Supine)
UTIL -aurd obenaurd obenouzaurd for use in the house(s); (intended) for home use
Benefactive BEN -ómist obenómist obenouzómist for (the benefit of) the house(s), for the house's/houses' sake,
(dedicated) to the house(s)
Causal/Motivative[5] CSL -ẽrgim
because of/thanks to the house(s)
COM -aseb obenaseb obenöutāseb (along) with the house(s)
Conjunctive CNJ -auvek obenauvek obenouzāuvek (along) with the house(s)
(as part of the entity/group)
Predicative PRD -tegem obentegem obenouśtegem depending/relying on a house/houses
Originative OGN -esil obenesil obenöutesil (originating, coming) from the house(s) (of)
Egressive EGR -äpprem obenäpprem obenouzäpprem starting from the house(s) (in movement)
Initiative INIT -premad obenpremad obenouśpremad starting from the house(s) (as the source)
Terminative TERM -ósot
up to the point of the house(s),
ending up at the house(s)
Locative LOC -ad obenad obenouzad at the house(s) (of)[6]
ALL -aup obenaup obenouzaup towards the house(s) (in position)
Lative LAT -äuvv obenäuvv obenouzäuvv to(wards) the house(s) (in movement)
Orientative ORI -élogaup obenélogaup obenouzélogaup facing the house(s)
Oppositive/Situative OPS
-esreg obenesreg house to house; houses facing/compared with each other
Cisative CIS -túdelad obentudelad obenouśtúdelad at the side of the house(s)[7]
Apudessive APUD -proxim obenproxim obenouśproxim near/next to the house(s), by the house(s)
Apudlative APLT -proximad obenproximad obenouśproximad at the vicinity of the house(s)
Apudallative APLL -proximaup obenproximaup obenouśproximaup towards the vicinity of the house(s)
Pertingent PERT -toag obentoag obenouśtoag touching/against the surface of the house(s)
Adessive ADE -íak obeníak obenouzíak on the surface of the house(s)
Altessive ALT -ault obenault obenouzault above the house(s)
Superessive SUPE -auload obenauload obenouzauload atop the surface of the house(s); on the roof(s)
Superlative[8] SUPL -äulvv obenäulvv obenouzäulvv over the top of the house(s); over the roof(s)
Perlative PERL -tranz obentranz obenouśtranz through the house(s) (in movement)
Prolative PROL -korttranz obenkorttranz obenouśkorttranz along the house(s)
Inessive I INE -int obenint obenouzint in the house(s)
II -intad obenintad obenouzintad within the house(s), inside the house(s)
Illative ILL -intaup obenintaup obenouzintaup into (in towards) the house(s)
Interessive/Intrative Dual INTER -prolad obenprolad between the (two) houses
Plural -multintad obenmultintad among the houses
Intertransitive Dual INTRT -proltranz obenproltranz in between the two houses
Plural -multtranz obenmulttranz going amidst the houses
Contessive CONT -multint obenmultint among the houses, amidst the houses
Exessive EXE -tug obentug obenouśtug outside the house(s) (in position)
Ablative ABL -túgaup obentúgaup obenouśtúgaup towards the limits of the house(s); heading outside the house(s) (in movement)
Elative ELA -tüvv obentüvv obenouśtüvv off the house(s), out of the house(s) (in movement)
Delative DEL -weg obenweg obenouzweg off (the surface of) the house(s)
Subessive SUBE -úlem obenúlem obenouzúlem below the surface of the house(s),
underneath the house(s)
Sublative SUBL -úlemad obenúlemad obenouzúlemad at the bottom of the house(s); in the basement(s)
Immediate IMD -oantem obenoantem obenouzoantem first the house(s)
Precursive PCV -prev obenprev obenouśprev before the house(s)
Postcursive POS -áprev obenáprev obenouzáprev after the house(s)
Abessive ABE -ond obenond obenouzond without the house(s); homeless
Privative PRIV -eriv obeneriv obenouzeriv removing/taking away the house(s)
Exceptive EXC -moin obenmoin obenouśmoin except the house(s)
Selective SEL -oantuig
obenōantuig obenplũrimtuig[9] one of the houses, several of the houses
Inclusive INCL -nend
including the house(s), the house(s) too/as well
Distributive DIST -aiv obenaiv obenouzaiv per house; per group/set/cluster of houses
Exclusive EXCL -seul obenseul obenouśseul only the house(s)
Propositive PRO -aubog obenaubog obenouzaubog for the house(s) (in opinion); in support of/supporting the house(s); pro-house
Oppositional OPP/ANTI -opon obenopon obenouzopon against the house(s) (in opinion); anti-house
Aversive/Evitative AVE/EVIT -évit obenévit obenouzévit avoiding the house(s)
Contrastive CRS -pótal obenpótal obenouśpótal instead of the house(s), rather than the house(s)
Transpositive TSP -uslen obenuslen obenöutuslen on behalf of the house(s)
Concessive CNC -mólen obenmólen obenouśmólen despite/in spite of the house(s), the house(s) in spite, although a house/houses
Postulative PTL -sif obensif obenouśsif if the house(s), then...
Conversive CNV -nemsif obennemsif obenouśnemsif if not for the house(s), then...
Essive ESS -nand obennand obenouśnand as a house/houses
Translative TRSL -iz obeniz obenöutiz changing into a house/houses, becoming a house/houses
Compositive CPS -esit obenesit obenöutesit made (out) of the house/houses
Semblative/Formal SEMBL
-oid obenoid obenouzoid like/resembling the house(s) (in appearance), in the form of the house(s)
Similative SIMIL -ausik obenausik obenouzausik like the house(s) (in manner or habit)
Identical IDT -aibem obenaibem obenouzaibem the same as the house(s)
Comparative[10]/Equative CMPR
-kuam obenkuam obenouśkuam ( than the house(s); (as ...) as the house(s)
Referential REF -prin obenprin obenouśprin about the house(s); concerning the house(s)
Considerative CSD -omil obenomil obenouzomil according to the house(s)

Relformaide also utilises two cases exclusive to time-based expressions and words for events:

  • Temporal (TEMP, -wob): kinwob (at five o'clock), sẽrtnevwob (at 9:00 p.m.), Kainmasinwob (in July), Krismasinwob (during the Christmas season), toakardwob (during the concert).
  • Limitative (LMT, -maurad): kinmaurad (by five o'clock), sẽrtnevmaurad (by 9:00 p.m.), tośtueldíemmaurad (by your birthday), Paskelmaurad (by Easter), anovaubrimaurad (by the New Year).

In addition, a variation of the Essive—the Linguistic Essive (ESS.LG, -nong)—denotes material written in a stated language:

Mandạrinnong (in Mandarin), Japaunnong (in Japanese), Suahilinnong (in Swahili), Euskạrnong (in Basque), Ingilnong (in English).

While various natural languages give different terms to various animals (depending on age and gender), Relformaide uses one common root and various affixes to accomplish the same effect; this also applies with various species-associated compounds. Below is an example involving the Japanese-derived animate root, nek- (cat).

Relformaide word English meaning
Masculine Feminine Neuter/Pan-gender Masculine Feminine Neuter/Pan-gender
neko neka nèke tom queen cat
neketo neketa nekète small(-sized) cat
nekedo nekeda nekède kitten, young cat
nekebo nekeba nekèbe newborn/baby kitten
nekoido nekoida nekoide feline
nekoidedo nekoideda nekoidède feline cub, young feline
nekoidebo nekoideba nekoidèbe newborn/baby feline
vairimneko vairimneka vairimnèke wild cat, feral cat
aupönsneko aupönsneka aupönsnèke stray cat
tüonnekadu tüannekadu nekadu to the cat, at the cat
tüonnekedadu tüannekedadi nekedadu to the kitten, at the kitten
tüonnekaupu tüannekaupu nekaupu towards the cat
tüonnekproximu tüannekproximu nekproximu near the cat, next to the cat
tüonnekaultu tüannekaultu nekaultu above the cat
tüonnekúlemu tüannekúlemu nekúlemu below the cat's feet/paws
Associated terms
nekmankaurde cat food
nektaulite litterbox

This chart serves to address and amend the derivational defects in Esperanto; esper-'s definition remains as "hope".

Word Meaning
espère hope
esperi associated with hope
esperu in the manner/way of hope
esperiène one who hopes, a hopeful one; hoper
esperar to hope
esperat SBJ hope(s)
esperait! hope!
esperant[11] SBJ is hoping/continues to hope
esperanté[11] that which is hoping/continues to hope
esperantiène[11] someone who is hoping/continues to hope
esperaijat about to hope, going to hope
esperaijiène someone who is about to hope
esperaid hoped (past participle stem)
esperavant having hoped
esperaide that which is hoped
espereuzi full of hope; hopeful
espereuzu hopefully
esperonde a desperate one
esperondi hopeless, desperate, despondent
esperondu hopelessly, desperately
esperondide despair (n), hopelessness, despondency
esperondar despair (v)
esperanfeli hope-prone
esperaine the result of hoping
esperide state of hope
esperesilabode source of hope
aurdesperar to hope for
aurdesperat SBJ hope(s) for
aurdesperant SBJ is hoping for/continues to hope for
aurdesperanté that which is hoping for/continues to hope for
aurdesperantiène someone who is hoping for/continues to hope for
aurdesperaijat about to hope for, going to hope for
aurdesperaijiène someone who is about to hope for (something)
aurdesperaid hoped for
aurdesperavant having hoped for
aurdesperaide that which is hoped for
tropesperar to overhope
esperṣerivar to dash one's hopes
Esperlinge Esperanto (literally "language of hope")
Esperlingparliène someone who speaks Esperanto
Esperlingdoseliène teacher of Esperanto
Esperlinglẽrniène student of Esperanto
Esperlingiziène Esperanto translator
Esperlingsábante Esperanto expert/professional
Esperlingloaké Esperanto devotee/fan
Espernongi in Esperanto
Joalespère Good Hope

This next table compares forms in Kayardild , an extinct Aboriginal Australian language, with their Relformaide equivalents. (Based on Evans (2010), p. 164

Root: ri- (east)
Kayardild Relformaide English
riya easte east
rilungka eastaupu to the east, eastward
riyananganda eastaupu to the east of
rilumbanda eastesile easterner
riinda easttüvvant moving from the east
riliida eastäuvvasant heading ever eastward
riliji houteastaupu far to the east
rinyinda eastoṛkúzobadi at the eastern extremity of
ringurrnga proltrannyeasti east across a geographical discontinuity
riinkirida parlaupeasttüvvänkkúzobadu at the boundary you meet moving from the east toward the point of speech
rimali eastätté hey you in the east!
riinmali easttüvvantté hey you coming from the east!
rilumali eastäuvvantté hey you going eastward!
rilumirdamirda eastoṛdúgaungtenadu in the dugong grounds to the east
rilunganda eastesiŕsúflé easterly wind
rilurayaanda vüëinnochemöreastägguersile previous night’s camp in the east
rilijatha (seb)eastauproular turn (self) round to the east
rilijulutha eastäummouvvar move something to the east
eastäuttuedtendoarmar sleep with one’s head to the east
rimarutha eastäuvvéyar look to the east
riinmarutha eastesilvéyar look from the east

Below is a comparison between Relformaide and Novial, an alternative to Esperanto. Novial was devised by Danish linguist Otto Jespersen in the late 1920s; this sample is taken from his 1928 work, An International Language, with variations of mari/fraul-/marry (and in the English version, related terms) marked in bold.[12]

Novial Relformaide English
Li pastoro ha mari Paul e Anna. Paul ha mari se a Anna. Les blid mari yer; dunke les es nun marit. Paul es Annan marito, e la es li marita de Paul. Anna esed charmanti kom marienda. After li mario li du marites departad a Paris por li mari-voyaje. Nus espera ke li mariteso sal es felisi. Lo pastoro fraulinzavat Paulo nend Anya. Paulo fraulizavat auvek Anya. Lumés pébat fraulizaid vüëiddíemwobu; ńẽrgim lumés noutadu fraulizaidat. Paulo bat Anyoza fraulo, nend luma bat Paulozo fraula. Anya pébat chạrmanti nand fraulaija. Áprev le fraulfeste, le fraultousène peräuvvat Párieze wob selbtouvoze fraulvé. Més esperat le fraulide fébat froli. The clergyman has married Paul and Anna. Paul has married Anna. They were married yesterday; thus they are now married. Paul is Anna's husband, and she is Paul's wife. Anna was charming as bride. After the wedding the married couple left for Paris on their wedding-trip. We hope the marriage (state of being married) will be happy.


In Relformaide, a phrase like "Although you really tried to make this play unsuccessful" can be rendered as the more analytic Mólen té pépógirújat haulemízante der esine dúlane, or the more morphologically complex Tośpédúlanēsinhaulemiśpógirujmólenu. The first form is used in general speech and writing, while the latter is mainly confined to print demonstrations of the language's agglutinative tendencies.

Morpheme breakdown
Morphemes Form Meaning Notes
haulem Haulem- Unsuccessful, a failure Hawaiian
haulem iz Haulemiz- To turn into a failure Translative case suffix
dúlan haulem iz Dúlanhaulemiz- To render a play (for stage or screen) unsuccessful Tagalog dula(an)
dúlan esin haulem iz Dúlanēsinhaulemiz- To render this play unsuccessful Demonstrative pronoun; Estonian/Finnish
dúlan esin haulem iz pog Dúlanēsinhaulemiśpog- To try rendering this play unsuccessful Dutch pogen
dúlan esin haulem iz pog iruj Dúlanēsinhaulemiśpógiruj- To strongly try rendering this play unsuccessful Emphatic marker; Marshallese
dúlan esin haulem iz pog iruj dúlanēsinhaulemiśpógiruj- SBJ strongly tried rendering this play unsuccessful Past tense augment
t oz dúlan esin haulem iz pog iruj Tośpédúlanēsinhaulemiśpógiruj- Your past serious attempt to make this play unsuccessful 2nd person familiar + genitive case suffix
t oz dúlan esin haulem iz pog iruj mólen Tośpédúlanēsinhaulemiśpógirujmólen- Although you really tried to make this play unsuccessful Concessive case suffix; Greek
t oz dúlan esin haulem iz pog iruj mólen u Tośpédúlanēsinhaulemiśpógirujmólenu Although you really tried to make this play unsuccessful Adverb termison
Note Note:


  1. Only found after avar/avat &c. (have/has) in analytic constructs.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Ède and édide are among Relformaide's very few palindromic words; a handful of palindromic roots also exist.
  3. In Relformaide, "knowledge" translates to sabantide or sabaide (depending on the context).
  4. Used in certain sentences with two or more subjects/objects.
  5. See Haspelmath (2006), p. 9
  6. Cf. French chez.
  7. Several directional suffixoids substitute the generic túdel when necessary:
    • -eask (left) — obeneaskad/obenöuteaskad (at the left side of the house)
    • -zusk (right) — obenzuskad/obenöunzuskad (at the right side of the house)
    • -élog (front) — obenélogad/obenouzélogad (at the front side of the house)
    • -vúdel (back) — obenvúdelad/obenöuvvúdelad (at the back side of the house)
    • -noard (north) — obennoardad/obenouśnoardad (at the north side of the house)
    • -sud (south) — obensúdad/obenouśsúdad (at the south side of the house)
    • -east (east) — obeneastad/obenöuteastad (at the east side of the house)
    • -west (left) — obenwestad/obenöutwestad (at the west side of the house)
  8. This differs from -ausom, the superlative comparison suffix.
  9. Plũrim- can be substituted by any of the other number roots, or compounds thereof: obentrïttuig (three of the houses), obendeytuig (ten of the houses), obenoatdeiśkauttuig (84 of the houses).
  10. This differs from -ausm, the comparative comparison suffix.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 As Justin B. Rye jokes in "Onomastics", "If Esperanto participles were fully regular, the word esperanto would mean a temporary outbreak of hope, and Zamenhof's pen‐name would have been la Doktoro Esperantulo!"
  12. As Jespersen also noted,
    "Ido has here the verb mariajar 'to marry' with the derivatives mariajo or mariajeso 'marriage,' mariajatulo 'married man,' mariajatino 'married woman,' with the variants mariajitulo, mariajitino; mariajo-festo 'wedding'; further, the independent words spozo, spozulo, spozino for husband and wife. - Occ has maritagie, marito, marita, for 'married couple' maritates, for wedding (eheschliessung) maritagie, maritantie, and for 'married state' (ehestand) matrimonie. Novial thus gets off cheaper than either of these languages."