Relformaide Dictionary:Grammar/Word formation

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Word formation
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Relformaide is an agglutinative language capable of producing words of various lengths, and with various inflections and derivations. As such, one can make new words out of given roots and end markers.

Formulation

Rules

Base roots and affixes in Relformaide are formulated and chosen so that:

  1. they can be as machine-readable as possible, as with Lojban (another constructed language); and
  2. their spellings do not conflict with those of other roots or legible combinations.[1]

Thanks to the above factors, it is possible to form new roots that combine existing ones with nonexistent or invalid strings:

  • déoz- (awe), sourced from Greek, contains the -oz- possessive marker at the end, but the first two letters () are an invalid combo ending with a vowel. Similarly, ríant (Welsh for "parent") combines the invalid with the continuative verb mood marker, -ant.

Extra care should be taken when forming roots that begin with pé/per, plé/pler, and fé/fer (the verb tense markers), l/m/t/b/v, or z/d/f/r:

  • fer- (or féroz-) cannot represent the Latin for "wild" or "savage"; instead, Armenian-sourced vairim is used. Similarly, lokand (a Gujarati borrowing) corresponds to the Latin ferrum, or iron.
  • dúven-, a portmanteau of English/Latin/Vietnamese/Dutch elements, stands in for the problematic dait(ạ) (data/information). (Otherwise, for instance, ótr-i-dait [different data] = ótr-id-ait [different-state-IMP].)

Unless marked with breved vowels, etymons that resemble combinations of existing roots cannot be safely used in Relformaide:

  • The English word "pirate" cannot be imported as is, since the combination of pir + -at = pirat (SBJ is used for...) already exists. The compromise term is gorag-, derived from Tajik.
  • Likewise, "plantain" = "the result of being a plant" (plant + -ain), so kuand- (from Cameroon Kol) is used.

Limitations

  1. If the source word serves as an adposition and/or conjunction, then the Relformaide root should not end with a consonant followed by l or r (e.g. -fl, -dr, -pr, -tr), as such combos may prove unwieldy to pronounce. Interjection roots can also end with Cr; as a rule, -at is the mandatory marker.
  2. Double consonants are not permitted in base roots, but are acceptable in compound forms (e.g. addez — tell [ad, "to object" + dez, "say"]).
  3. Unless the underdotted is employed, Core roots cannot begin with any of the verb markers (-ar/-ant/-ait/-aid et al.) or tense prefixes (pé-/plé-/fé-/péfé-).
  4. If a root begins with b/l/m/t/v, then no verb markers should follow that first letter unless an ă is used to avoid morphological conflict.

Formation

Rules

  1. Words are normally formed as in English and the Romance languages.
    1. Nouns end in -e if the subject is inanimate or neuter; -o if masculine; or -a if feminine.
      • nây- (dog) + oben- (house) + -e (neuter marker) = nâyobène (doghouse)
      • livr- (book) + usont- (institute) + -íen (someone from/working at) + -a (feminine marker) = livrusontíena (female librarian; literally "female worker at a book institute")
      • eskũr- (squirrel) + -ed (juvenile/young creature) + -o (masculine marker) + -s (plural marker) = eskũredos (boy squirrels)
    2. Verbs end with -ar in the infinitive, -at in the indicative, and so forth.
      • vev- (live) + -ar (infinitive) = vévar (to live; to be alive). To aid in pronunciation, the e is marked with an acute (‘) as in French.
  2. Emphasis is placed on the last main root (marked below in bold) in any valid combination.
    • ad- (to) + ven- (come) + -at (indicative) = advenat (SBJ arrives)
    • toukel- (hammer) + -emek (instrumental marker) + -u (adverb marker) = toukelēmeku (with [the help of] a hammer)
  3. Roots that start with a bound suffix and end with a bound prefix are not permitted, and vice versa.
  4. Pronouns use the affixes allocated in their declension system, along with -aik (in phrases such as Sif mé taik... [If I were you...]).
  5. At least one combination consisting only of pronouns is liberally allowed: m- (I/we) and t- (you) are found with an interfix in mit (send) and tim (piece).
  6. The definite-article root l- can only be followed by the gender plus plural markers (or the emphatic marker -iruj in between), and cannot be conjugated as a verb nor combine with another root.

Summary by stem type

Affix(es) Stem type
Noun Adjective Verb Preposition
-Ø- Root Preposition
Suffixes
Termisons and TAM particles
-e Entity Something that possesses the attribute; something that is the attribute's description That which is the action; an act of doing something That which is PREP
-o/-a Animate entity Someone who possesses the attribute Someone who is PREP
-i Associated with entity Attribute Associated with the action Which is PREP
-u In the way/manner of the entity; like the entity would be or do In the way/manner of the attribute; cf. English -ly In the way/manner of the action In a PREP way/manner
-e-s Entities Things possessing the attribute; things that fit the attribute's description Acts of doing something Things that are PREP
-o-s/-a-s Animate entities Sentients who possess the attribute Sentients who are PREP
-i-s Associated with entities Attribute (of plural noun) Associated with the actions Which are PREP
-ar To be the entity To possess the attribute; to be ADJ To do the action (Verb) To be PREP
-at SBJ is the entity SBJ possesses the attribute; SBJ is ADJ SBJ does the action SBJ is PREP
-ant SBJ is being the entity SBJ is possessing the attribute SBJ is doing the action SBJ is being PREP
-asant SBJ is still being the entity SBJ is still possessing the attribute SBJ is still doing the action SBJ is still being PREP
-ant-av-at SBJ has been being the entity SBJ has been possessing the attribute SBJ has been doing the action SBJ has been being PREP
-ant-e Something that is being the entity Something that is possessing the attribute; something that is being ADJ Something that is doing the action Something that is being PREP
-ant-i That is being the entity That is possessing the attribute; that is being ADJ That is doing the action That is being PREP
-av-ar To have been the entity To have possessed the attribute; to have been ADJ To have done the action To have been PREP
-av-at SBJ has been the entity SBJ has possessed the attribute; SBJ has been ADJ SBJ has done the action SBJ has been PREP
-av-e Something that has been the entity Something that has possessed the attribute; something that has been ADJ Something that has done the action Something that has been PREP
-av-i Associated with having been the entity That has possessed the attribute; that has been ADJ That has done the action That has been PREP
-av-ant-u Having been the entity Having possessed the attribute Having done the action Having been PREP
-aij-e An entity that is about or ready to be Something that is about to possess the attribute; something that is about to be ADJ An action about or ready to be done Something that is about to be PREP
-aij-i About or ready to be the entity About to possess the attribute; about to be ADJ About or ready to do About to be PREP
-aij-ar To be ready to be the entity To be ready to possess the attribute; to be ready to be ADJ To be ready to do the action To be ready to be PREP
-aij-at SBJ is about to be the entity SBJ is about to possess the attribute; SBJ is about to be ADJ SBJ is about to do the action SBJ is about to be PREP
-aij-ant SBJ is about to be being the entity SBJ is about to be possessing the attribute SBJ is about to be doing the action SBJ is about to be being PREP
-aik SBJ ought to be the entity SBJ ought to possess the attribute; SBJ ought to be ADJ SBJ ought to do the action SBJ ought to be PREP
-aik-e Something that ought to be the entity Something that ought to possess the attribute; something that ought to be ADJ An action that ought to be done Something that ought to be PREP
-aik-i That ought to be the entity That ought to possess the attribute; that ought to be ADJ That ought to or should be done That ought to be PREP
-aid-e Something that is done
-aid-i Done
-aid-ar To be done
-aid-at SBJ is done
-aid-ant SBJ is being done
-aid-asant SBJ is still being done
-aid-av-at SBJ has been done
-aid-aij-at SBJ is about to be done
-aid-aik SBJ ought to be done
-ait Be the entity! Be ADJ! Do it! Be PREP!
-aid-ait Be done!
-aisom-ar To fulfill an action
-aisom-e An action fulfilled
-aubel-ar To cease being an entity To no longer possess the attribute To cease doing an action To no longer be PREP
-aubel-e An entity that has ceased to exist An entity no longer possessing the attribute An action that has ceased An entity that is no longer PREP
People and sizes
-oz-(e/o/a) Belonging to an entity; an entity's... Belonging to something possessing the attribute; an ADJ entity's... An action's... Belonging to something that is PREP; a PREP entity's...
-oz-íen-(e/o/a) A member of an entity (group, team, or organisation)
-íer-e Something that produces the entity Something that turns things into the attribute Something that does the action Something that makes things PREP
-íen-(e/o/a) Someone who is, does, plays, comes from, or specialises/works in the entity Someone who possesses the attribute; someone who is ADJ Someone who does the action Someone who is PREP
-ódr-(e/o/a) A child (son/daughter) or progeny of an animate entity; an offspring or spinoff of an inanimate entity A child who is ADJ
-úvel-(e/o/a) A step-relative of an animate entity; an ersatz form of an inanimate entity An ersatz, ADJ entity An ersatz action
-oajan-(e/o/a) A god-relative of an animate entity A god-relative who is ADJ
-eb-(e/o/a) Animate newborn entity A baby/newborn who possesses the attribute; a baby/newborn who is ADJ A baby/newborn who is PREP
-ed-(e/o/a) Juvenile/young entity A young entity possessing the attribute; a youngster who is ADJ A young entity that is PREP
-eld-(e/o/a) Old/elder entity An old entity possessing the attribute; an old entity that is ADJ An old entity that is PREP
-et-(e/o/a) Diminutive form of entity Something that is a little/briefly ADJ Brief action Something that is a little PREP
-ead-(e/o/a) Medium-sized entity Something that is moderately ADJ Moderate action Something that is moderately PREP
-ard-(e/o/a) Augmentative entity Something that is greatly ADJ Extended action Something that is greatly PREP
-et-i Associated with a diminutive form of the entity A little/briefly ADJ Associated with the brief action A little PREP
-ead-i Associated with a midsized form of the entity Moderately ADJ Associated with the moderate action Moderately PREP
-ard-i Associated with an augmentative form of the entity Greatly ADJ Associated with the extended action Greatly PREP
-et-ar To be a miniature form of the entity To be a little/briefly ADJ To do an action briefly To be a little PREP
-ead-ar To be a midsized form of the entity To be moderately ADJ To do an action moderately To be moderately PREP
-ard-ar To be a large version of the entity To be greatly ADJ To do a prolonged action To be greatly PREP
-eset-e A small thing that is ADJ
-esead-e A midsized thing that is ADJ
-esard-e A small thing that is ADJ
Comparatives and superlatives
-ausm-e Something more ADJ/ADJ-er
-ausom-e Something most ADJ/ADJ-est
-eusm-e Something less ADJ
-eusom-e Something least ADJ
-ausm-i More ADJ/ADJ-er
-ausom-i Most ADJ/ADJ-est
-eusm-i Less ADJ
-eusom-i Least ADJ
-ausm-u More ADJ-ly
-ausom-u Most ADJ-ly
-eusm-u Less ADJ-ly
-eusom-u Least ADJ-ly
Emphasis
-iruj-e An entity as emphasis An ADJ entity as emphasis An action as emphasis A PREP entity as emphasis
-iruj-i Pertaining to the entity as emphasis ADJ as emphasis Associated with the action as emphasis Which is PREP as emphasis
-iruj-ar To be the entity as emphasis To be ADJ as emphasis To do the action as emphasis To be PREP as emphasis
-uit-e A stronger variant of the entity An entity that is strongly ADJ A serious action That which is really PREP
-uit-i Associated with a stronger variant of the entity Strongly, seriously, or really ADJ Associated with serious actions Really PREP
-uit-ar To be a stronger variant of the entity To be strongly ADJ To seriously do the action To be really PREP
Verbal/duration particles
-ábil-e Something that can be the entity Something able to possess the attribute; something that can be ADJ A potential action A potential state of being PREP
-ábil-i Able to be the entity Able to possess the attribute; able to be ADJ Able to do the entity Able to be PREP
-ábil-ar To be able to be the entity To be able to possess the attribute; to be able to be ADJ To be able to do the action To be able to be PREP
-ábil-id-e The ability of being the entity The ability of possessing the attribute; the ability of being ADJ The ability of doing the action The ability to be PREP
-aibil-e Something that can be done
-aibil-i Able to be done
-aibil-ar To have the potential to be done
-aibil-id-e The ability of an action being done
-ain-e The result of being the entity The result of being ADJ The result of the action The result of being PREP
-ámel-e An occasional or frequent entity Something often or frequently ADJ A frequent action Something often or frequently PREP
-ámel-i Often or frequently the entity Often or frequently ADJ Often or frequently the action Often or frequently PREP
-ámel-ar To be the entity often or frequently To possess the attribute often or frequently; to be ADJ often or frequently To do the action often or frequently To often or frequently be PREP
-oguil-e A part-time entity Something occasionally ADJ A part-time action Something occasionally PREP
-oguil-i Sometimes the entity Sometimes ADJ Sometimes the action Sometimes PREP
-oguil-ar To be the entity sometimes To be sometimes ADJ To do the action sometimes To be sometimes PREP
-oajem-e A momentary entity; something that appears for a split second Something momentarily ADJ A momentary action Something momentarily PREP
-oajem-i Momentarily the entity Momentarily ADJ Momentarily the action Momentarily PREP
-oajem-ar To be the entity for a split second To be ADJ for a moment To do the action in a flash To be PREP for a moment
-esel-e A probable entity Something probably or perhaps ADJ A probable action Something probably or perhaps PREP
-esel-i Maybe, perhaps, or probably the entity Maybe or perhaps ADJ Maybe or perhaps the action Maybe or perhaps PREP
-esel-ar To probably be the entity To probably possess the attribute; to probably be ADJ To probably do the action To probably be PREP
-ódiv-at What about the entity? What if SBJ were ADJ? What if SBJ should do the action? What if SBJ were PREP?
-aubog-e Something that favours or supports an entity Something that favours the attribute Something that favours or supports the action
-aubog-i In favour or support of an entity; pro-entity In favour of the attribute In favour or support of the action; pro-action
-aubog-ar To favour or support an entity; to be pro-entity To favour the attribute To favour or support the action; to be pro-action
-opon-e Something that opposes an entity Something that opposes the attribute Something that opposes the action
-opon-i Against an entity; anti-entity Against the attribute Against the action; anti-action
-opon-ar To oppose an entity; to be anti-entity To oppose the attribute To oppose the action; to be anti-action
Attributionals
-un-et-e Part or some of the entity Part or some of which possesses the attribute Part or some of the action
-euz-e Something that is full of the entity Something that is full of the attribute Something that is full of the action
-euz-i Full of the entity Full of the attribute Full of the action
-euz-ar To be full of the entity To be full of the attribute To be full of the action
-ail-i Pertaining/relating to the entity Pertaining/relating to the attribute Pertaining/relating to the action Pertaining/relating to PREP
-if-i Characterised by the entity Characterised by the attribute Characterised by the action
-id-e The state, quality, or condition of being the entity; cf. English -(i)ty/-ness/-hood/-dom The state, quality, or condition associated with the attribute The state, quality, or condition associated with the action The state, quality, or condition of being PREP
-oid-i Like/in the form of the entity Like/in the form of the attribute Like/in the form of the action
Causatives
-inz-ar To cause or bring forth the entity (on something) To make ADJ To cause the action To make PREP
-inz-aid-i Transformed with instances of the entity Made ADJ Made done (by an agent) Made PREP
-inz-aid-ar To be transformed with instances of the entity To be made ADJ To be made done (by an agent) To be made PREP
-iz-ar To turn into the entity To turn ADJ To turn into the action To turn into a PREP entity
-iz-aid-i Turned into the entity Turned ADJ Turned into the action Turned into a PREP entity
-iz-aid-ar To be turned into the entity To be turned ADJ To be turned into the action To be turned into a PREP entity
-ẽrgim-u Caused by/because of the entity Caused by/because of the attribute Caused by/because of the action Caused by/because of being PREP
Specialties
-íom-e An element named after the entity An element possessing the attribute An element named after the action An element named after PREP
-tánul-e The study of the entity; the field associated with the entity The study of the attribute; the field associated with the attribute The study of the action; the field associated with the action The field associated with PREP
-eand-e A tool devoted to the entity A tool that is ADJ A tool for doing the action A tool that is PREP
-iz-eand-e A tool that tranforms things into the entity A tool for making things ADJ A tool for making things PREP
-ineal-e A machine devoted to the entity A machine that is ADJ A machine for doing the action A machine that is PREP
-iz-ineal-e A machine that transforms things into the entity A machine for making things ADJ A machine for making things PREP
Prefixes
Functionals
nal- Not the entity Not the attribute SBJ does not do the action SBJ is not PREP
nid- Not the entity in question Not possessing the attribute SBJ does not do the action in question SBJ is not PREP in question
rel- Something that is the entity again Possessing the attribute once again SBJ redoes/repeats the action SBJ is PREP again
ver- The entity in reverse The inverse of the attribute SBJ does the action in reverse, or reverses/reverts it SBJ is PREP, but in reverse
voul- An entity that is wanted or desired An attribute that is wanted or desired An action that is wanted or desired SBJ wants to be PREP
boul- An entity that is needed or important An attribute that is needed or important An action that is needed or important SBJ needs to be PREP
seb- A self-serving entity Self-ADJ An action done by oneself Self-PREP
shoar- Entities to each other ADJ towards one another An action done by each other/one another PREP in relation to each other
tep- Great-/grand-
tout- A full or complete entity Completely or totally ADJ; omni-ADJ Full action Completely PREP
Affects
jout- A sudden or unexpected entity Suddenly or unexpectedly ADJ A sudden or unexpected action Suddenly or unexpectedly PREP
vasit- Intentional entity Intentionally ADJ Intentional action Intentionally PREP
tasiv- Accidental entity ADJ by accident Accidental/unintended action PREP by accident
International roots
hîdrol- Hydro-entity Hydro-ADJ Hydro-action
hîpẽr- Hyper-entity Hyper-ADJ Hyper-action
mîkrol- Micro-entity Micro-ADJ Micro-action
saub- A sub-entity Sub-ADJ Sub-action Sub-PREP
supẽr- Super-entity Super-ADJ Super-action
télev- Something transmitted from afar; tele-entity Tele-ADJ Something done from afar; tele-action
Tense augments
pé-
(per-)
A past or ex-entity Once or formerly the attribute SBJ did the action SBJ was PREP
plé-
(pler-)
An entity that once was, but is no longer Once or formerly, but no longer, the attribute SBJ used to do the action SBJ used to be PREP
fé-
(fer-)
A future entity; an entity-to-be Planned or anticipated to be the attribute SBJ will do the action SBJ will be PREP
pé-fé-
(pé-fer-)
An entity that would be Which would be the attribute ...that SBJ would do the action ...that SBJ would be PREP

Examples

Simple

ótr

Relformaide words change meanings based on the termison and/or prefix, as shown in this paradigm for ótr- ("other/different"). As with most adjective-based roots, ótr- employs all five uniliteral termisons—plus the verbal ones—in its simplest form. (It becomes ńótr- when placed after a vowel.)

With termisons
Grammatical form Termison Word Meaning
Noun Neuter -e ótré another one
Masculine -o ótro another one (masculine)
Feminine -a ótra another one (feminine)
Adjective -i ótri different
Adverb -u ótru differently
Verb Infinitive -ar ótrar to be different; to differ
Indicative -at ótrat SBJ is different; SBJ differs
Perfect -av-at ótravat SBJ has been different
Prospective -aij-at ótraijat SBJ is about to be different
Conditional / Subjunctive -aik ótraik SBJ ought to differ
Imperative -ait ótrait Be different! Stand out!
Progressive -ant ótrant SBJ is differing
Continuative -asant ótrasant SBJ is still different
Past Participle -aid ótraid[2] been different
With prefixes
Grammatical form Prefix Word Meaning
Negation Verbal nal- nalótrat SBJ is not different; SBJ is the same
Nominal nem- nemótrat SBJ is not among those who are different; SBJ is homogeneous
Iterative rel- relótrat SBJ is different again
Volitive soul- soulótrat SBJ wishes to be different
Desiderative voul- voulótrat SBJ wants to be different
Debitive (Necessitative) boul- boulótrat SBJ needs to be different
Tense Present Ø- ótrat SBJ is different; SBJ differs
Recent Past nupé- ~ nuper- nuperótrat SBJ was just different
Simple Past pé- ~ per- perótrat SBJ was different
Discontinuous Past plé- ~ pler- plerótrat SBJ used to be different
Future fé- ~ fer- ferótrat SBJ will be different
Future in the Past pé-fé ~ pé-fer- péferótrat SBJ would be different
ed

This next paradigm demonstrates the similar versatility of the animate root, ed- (young). (It becomes ńed- when placed after a vowel.)

Word Affix(es) Meaning
Word/Phrase Affix(es)
Basic words
ède[3] -e youngster, youth, youngling, child, kid, tyke neuter noun
edo -o boy masculine noun
eda -a girl feminine noun
edi -i young adjective
edu -u youngly (Rare) adverb
edar -ar to be young infinitive verb
Compound words
édausmé -ausm-e the younger comparative + neuter
édausmi -ausm-i younger comparative + adjective
édausome -ausom-e the youngest superlative + neuter
édausomi -ausom-i youngest superlative + adjective
edómisti -ómist-i children's dedicated to + adjective
édeuzi -euz-i youthful full of + adjective
édeuzu -euz-u youthfully full of + adjective
édide[3] -id-e youth state/condition + neuter
ednandu -nand-u as a child, while young as... + adverb
reledi rel-R-i young again again + young + adjective
relédinzar rel-R-inz-ar to rejuvenate again + young + cause + infinitive verb
relédinzière rel-R-inz-íer-e the Fountain of Youth again + young + cause + agent + neuter
ódrède ódr-R-e young offspring/progeny child + young + neuter
tuerède tuer-R-e cub, whelp, young creature creature + young + neuter
úvelède úvel-R-e young step-relative step- + young + neuter
oajanède oajan-R-e young god-relative god- + young + neuter
Ámeríkíenèdes Ámerik-íen-R-e-s "Kids in America" America + demonym + young + neuter + plural
vey/veiz/vorit

Words in Relformaide can be formed from existing morphemes based on attribute, thus reducing the need for different roots when necessary. These charts, dealing with the inanimate vey- ("see") and related veiz- (show)/vorit- (eye), demonstrate the language's derivational versatility.

Word Affix(es) Meaning
Word Affix(es)
Verbs (with infinitive -ar)
véyar see, watch, view
véyetar -et glance a little
véyardar -ard stare a lot
véyaidar -aid be seen; appear past participle
véyondar -ond be blind without
naŕvéyar nal- not see/notice (something) verb negator
prevvéyar prev- foresee, preview before
évïvvéyar évit- ignore, disregard avoid
advéyar ad- look at, admire at something/someone
äuvvéyar aup- face (something/someone), look toward(s) toward(s)
sebvéyar seb- look at oneself self
shoarvéyar shoar- see each other, stare face-to-face each other
intäuvvéyar int-aup- peer (at) in + towards (into)
tränvvéyar tranz- scan through
wegvéyar weg- shun off/away from
Nouns (with neuter -e)
vèye sight (act of seeing)
véyaide -aid sight (something seen) past participle
veyábilidé -ábil-id vision able to... + state of
véyaine -aine insight the result of...
véyiène -íen watcher, looker, seer someone who...
véyondide -ond-id blindness without + state of
veyúbèle úbel- bad vision, poor eyesight bad
prevvèye prev- foresight, preview before
févèye fé- outlook future tense marker
véyaurode -aurod lookout, vantage point, observatory place
veyäurffásine -aurd-fásin videotape, videocasette, VHS for purpose + tape
véyeande -eand glasses tool
véyeandiène -eand-íen optician tool + occupation
sebvéyaide seb-R-aid reflection self + see + past participle
sebvéyeande seb-R-eand mirror self + see + tool
Adjective/Adverb (with -i/-u)
véyi -i visual
véyondi -ond-i blind without
véyu -u visually
véyondu -ond-u blindly without
Word Affix(es) Meaning
Word Affix(es)
veizar -ar show, display, demonstrate infinitive verb
veize -e show, demonstration neuter noun
Word Affix(es) Meaning
Word Affix(es)
Nouns (with neuter -e)
vorite eye
voritiène -íen oculist, eye doctor occupation...
voritosivaine -osiv-ain glaucoma, eye disease sick + resulting from
tuarenvorite tuaren- cataract fog
lounvorite loun- moon blindness, night blindness moon
drautvorite draut- dry eye dry
vörisshoule -shoul sclera white
lẽrn

This chart for the inanimate verbal root lẽrn- (learn) highlights the affixational differences between Esperanto, a well-known constructed language, and Relformaide itself.

Affix(es) Word Meaning
EO RFM EO RFM
lern' lẽrn- Root
-i -ar lerni lẽrnar to learn
-ad -ant lernadi lẽrnantar " study
-eg -ard lernegi lẽrnardar " cram
-ig -inz lernigi lẽrninzar " cause to learn
-iĝ -iz lerniĝi lẽrnizar " learn intuitively
-et lerneti lẽrnetar " dabble in learning
dis- -úbel dislerni lẽrnúbelar " learn in a desultory manner
ek- -prem eklerni lẽrnpremar " begin to learn
el- shoum- ellerni shoumlẽrnar " learn thoroughly
mal- ver- mallerni verlẽrnar " unlearn
re- rel- relerni rellẽrnar " learn again
-ant -ant-(e/o) lernanto lẽrnante, lẽrnanto a pupil, a learner (neut./masc.)
-ant-in -ant-a lernantino lẽrnanta a pupil, a learner (fem.)
-ej-an -íen-o lernejano lẽrníeno a schoolboy
-ej-an-in -íen-a lernejanino lẽrníena a schoolgirl
ge-R-ant-o-j -íen-e-s gelernantoj lẽrniènes pupils (masc. and fem.)
-ant-ar -ant-truz lernantaro lẽrnanttruze a class
-ej -abod lernejo lẽrnaurode a school (EO); a learning institution (RFM)
-ej-et -abod-et lernejeto lẽrnaurodète an elementary school (EO); a small learning institution (RFM)
-ej-ar -abod-truz lernejaro lẽrnäbottruze a university (EO); a cluster of learning institutions (RFM)
-ul -av-(e/o) lernulo lẽrnave, lẽrnavo a learned person, a learned man, a savant
-ul-in -av-a lernulino lẽrnava a learned woman, a "blue stocking"
-aĵ lernaĵo knowledge (EO)[4]
-il -eand lernilo lẽrneande intelligence (EO); flashcard (RFM)
-ind -val lerninda lẽrnvali worth learning
-o -e lerno lẽrne act or action of learning
-ebl -aibil lernebla lẽrnaibili learnable
-ec -aid-id lerneco lẽrnaidide learnedness
-em -anfel lernema lẽrnanfeli studious
-er aurd-esim lernero lẽrnaurdesime a subject of a curriculum
-ar aurd-truz lernaro lẽrnäurttruze a curriculum
-a -i lerna lẽrni learned (EO); associated with acts of learning (RFM)
-e -u lerne lẽrnu learnedly (EO); in the manner of an act of learning (RFM)
-u -ait lernu! lẽrnait! learn!
oben

This declension chart for the inanimate root oben- ("house"; ńoben- post-vowel) is another example of Relformaide's agglutinative nature. Relformaide has an array of affixes and affixoids corresponding to more than 80 grammatical cases found in various natural and constructed languages (whether single or compound), as well as a handful conceived for Relformaide itself.

Whereas cases in various languages are placed after their host root, those in Relformaide act as postpositional mesoclitics between the root and termison. The intrafixes -ieb-, -iz-, -orz-, -oz-, and -únet-, plus the -u suffix (and the -i- in accusative pronouns), are the language's only bound case markers; -eun- and -e(s) mark topics and singularity/plurality respectively; and -ouz- (otherwise represented as -uez-) represents a plural subject before case particles.

Case Abbr. Suffix Derivation Meaning
Singular Plural
Grammatical
Nominative
Accusative
Absolutive
Subject NOM
ACC
ABS
-e obène obènes (the) house(s)
Topic -eune obenēune obenēunes as for/speaking of the house(s)
Ergative ERG -iebe obeniebe obeniebes done by the house(s) (passive agent)
Appositive[5] APP -erije obenerije obenerijes ...which is the house
Dative DAT -ade obenade obenades (to) the house(s)
Partitive PART -únète obenúnète obenúnètes part of the house(s)
Vocative Familiar VOC -té obenté obentés O house(s)
Formal -usté obenusté obenustés O house(s)
Adverbial/Functive ADV/FUN -u obenu in the manner/way of a house; like a house
Relational
Genitive
(Inalienable)
GEN -oze obenoze obenozes (the) house's/houses'
Possessive
(Alienable)
POSS -orze obenorze obenorzes associated with the house(s)
Proprietive Inalienable PROP -zol obenzol obenouzzol ...with the house(s) (as part of someone's belongings);
owning the house(s)
Alienable -ten obenten obenouśten ...with the house(s) temporarily, having houses
Ornative ORN -abuam obenabuam obenouzabuam endowed/equipped with a house/houses,
provided a house/houses (by a donor)
Associative
Instrumental/
Vialis/Instructive
INSTR
VIA
-emek obenemek obenouzēmek with (the help of) the house(s), using the house(s) (for a task or purpose); by way of/via/through the house(s); house-wise
Utilitative UTL -útil obenútil obenouzútil using the house (but not for any task or purpose)
Utilitive/
Applicative/Purposive (Supine)
UTIL -aurd obenaurd obenouzaurd for use in the house(s); (intended) for home use
Benefactive BEN -ómist obenómist obenouzómist for (the benefit of) the house(s), for the house's/houses' sake,
(dedicated) to the house(s)
Causal/Motivative[6] CSL -ẽrgim
-póvaud
obenẽrgim
obenpóvaud
obenouzẽrgim
obenouśpóvaud
because of/thanks to the house(s)
Comitative/
Sociative/Associative
COM -aseb obenaseb obenöutāseb (along) with the house(s)
Conjunctive CNJ -auvek obenauvek obenouzāuvek (along) with the house(s)
(as part of the entity/group)
Predicative PRD -tegem obentegem obenouśtegem depending/relying on a house/houses
Spatial
Originative OGN -esil obenesil obenöutesil (originating, coming) from the house(s) (of)
Egressive EGR -äpprem obenäpprem obenouzäpprem starting from the house(s) (in movement)
Initiative INIT -premad obenpremad obenouśpremad starting from the house(s) (as the source)
Terminative TERM -ósot
-äffim
obenósot
obenäffim
obenöutósot
obenouzäffim
up to the point of the house(s),
ending up at the house(s)
Locative LOC -ad obenad obenouzad at the house(s) (of)[7]
Allative/Versative/
Approximative
(Directional)
ALL -aup obenaup obenouzaup towards the house(s) (in position)
Lative LAT -äuvv obenäuvv obenouzäuvv to(wards) the house(s) (in movement)
Orientative ORI -élogaup obenélogaup obenouzélogaup facing the house(s)
Oppositive/Situative OPS
SIT
-esreg obenesreg house to house; houses facing/compared with each other
Cisative CIS -túdelad obentudelad obenouśtúdelad at the side of the house(s)[8]
Apudessive APUD -proxim obenproxim obenouśproxim near/next to the house(s), by the house(s)
Apudlative APLT -proximad obenproximad obenouśproximad at the vicinity of the house(s)
Apudallative APLL -proximaup obenproximaup obenouśproximaup towards the vicinity of the house(s)
Pertingent PERT -toag obentoag obenouśtoag touching/against the surface of the house(s)
Adessive ADE -íak obeníak obenouzíak on the surface of the house(s)
Altessive ALT -ault obenault obenouzault above the house(s)
Superessive SUPE -auload obenauload obenouzauload atop the surface of the house(s); on the roof(s)
Superlative[9] SUPL -äulvv obenäulvv obenouzäulvv over the top of the house(s); over the roof(s)
Perlative PERL -tranz obentranz obenouśtranz through the house(s) (in movement)
Prolative PROL -korttranz obenkorttranz obenouśkorttranz along the house(s)
Inessive I INE -int obenint obenouzint in the house(s)
II -intad obenintad obenouzintad within the house(s), inside the house(s)
Illative ILL -intaup obenintaup obenouzintaup into (in towards) the house(s)
Interessive/Intrative Dual INTER -prolad obenprolad between the (two) houses
Plural -multintad obenmultintad among the houses
Intertransitive Dual INTRT -proltranz obenproltranz in between the two houses
Plural -multtranz obenmulttranz going amidst the houses
Contessive CONT -multint obenmultint among the houses, amidst the houses
Exessive EXE -tug obentug obenouśtug outside the house(s) (in position)
Ablative ABL -túgaup obentúgaup obenouśtúgaup towards the limits of the house(s); heading outside the house(s) (in movement)
Elative ELA -tüvv obentüvv obenouśtüvv off the house(s), out of the house(s) (in movement)
Delative DEL -weg obenweg obenouzweg off (the surface of) the house(s)
Subessive SUBE -úlem obenúlem obenouzúlem below the surface of the house(s),
underneath the house(s)
Sublative SUBL -úlemad obenúlemad obenouzúlemad at the bottom of the house(s); in the basement(s)
Chronological
Immediate IMD -oantem obenoantem obenouzoantem first the house(s)
Precursive PCV -prev obenprev obenouśprev before the house(s)
Postcursive POS -áprev obenáprev obenouzáprev after the house(s)
Quantitative
Abessive ABE -ond obenond obenouzond without the house(s); homeless
Privative PRIV -eriv obeneriv obenouzeriv removing/taking away the house(s)
Exceptive EXC -moin obenmoin obenouśmoin except the house(s)
Selective SEL -oantuig
-plũrimtuig
obenōantuig obenplũrimtuig[10] one of the houses, several of the houses
Inclusive INCL -nend
-ausin
obennend
obenausin
obenouśnend
obenöutausin
including the house(s), the house(s) too/as well
Distributive DIST -aiv obenaiv obenouzaiv per house; per group/set/cluster of houses
Exclusive EXCL -seul obenseul obenouśseul only the house(s)
Qualitative
Propositive PRO -aubog obenaubog obenouzaubog for the house(s) (in opinion); in support of/supporting the house(s); pro-house
Oppositional OPP/ANTI -opon obenopon obenouzopon against the house(s) (in opinion); anti-house
Aversive/Evitative AVE/EVIT -évit obenévit obenouzévit avoiding the house(s)
Contrastive CRS -pótal obenpótal obenouśpótal instead of the house(s), rather than the house(s)
Transpositive TSP -uslen obenuslen obenöutuslen on behalf of the house(s)
Concessive CNC -mólen obenmólen obenouśmólen despite/in spite of the house(s), the house(s) in spite, although a house/houses
Postulative PTL -sif obensif obenouśsif if the house(s), then...
Conversive CNV -nemsif obennemsif obenouśnemsif if not for the house(s), then...
Essive ESS -nand obennand obenouśnand as a house/houses
Translative TRSL -iz obeniz obenöutiz changing into a house/houses, becoming a house/houses
Compositive CPS -esit obenesit obenöutesit made (out) of the house/houses
Semblative/Formal SEMBL
FORM
-oid obenoid obenouzoid like/resembling the house(s) (in appearance), in the form of the house(s)
Similative SIMIL -ausik obenausik obenouzausik like the house(s) (in manner or habit)
Identical IDT -aibem obenaibem obenouzaibem the same as the house(s)
Comparative[11]/Equative CMPR
EQU
-kuam obenkuam obenouśkuam (...er) than the house(s); (as ...) as the house(s)
Referential REF -prin obenprin obenouśprin about the house(s); concerning the house(s)
Considerative CSD -omil obenomil obenouzomil according to the house(s)

Relformaide also utilises two cases exclusive to time-based expressions and words for events:

  • Temporal (TEMP, -wob): kinwob (at five o'clock), sẽrtnevwob (at 9:00 p.m.), Kainmasinwob (in July), Krismasinwob (during the Christmas season), toakardwob (during the concert).
  • Limitative (LMT, -maurad): kinmaurad (by five o'clock), sẽrtnevmaurad (by 9:00 p.m.), tośtueldíemmaurad (by your birthday), Paskelmaurad (by Easter), anovaubrimaurad (by the New Year).

In addition, a variation of the Essive—the Linguistic Essive (ESS.LG, -nong)—denotes material written in a stated language:

Mandạrinnong (in Mandarin), Japaunnong (in Japanese), Suahilinnong (in Swahili), Euskạrnong (in Basque), Ingilnong (in English).
nek

While various natural languages give different terms to various animals (depending on age and gender), Relformaide uses one common root and various affixes to accomplish the same effect; this also applies with various species-associated compounds. Below is an example involving the Japanese-derived animate root, nek- (cat).

Relformaide word English meaning
Masculine Feminine Neuter/Pan-gender Masculine Feminine Neuter/Pan-gender
Names
neko neka nèke tom queen cat
neketo neketa nekète small(-sized) cat
nekedo nekeda nekède kitten, young cat
nekebo nekeba nekèbe newborn/baby kitten
nekoido nekoida nekoide feline
nekoidedo nekoideda nekoidède feline cub, young feline
nekoidebo nekoideba nekoidèbe newborn/baby feline
vairimneko vairimneka vairimnèke wild cat, feral cat
aupönsneko aupönsneka aupönsnèke stray cat
Postpositionals
tüonnekadu tüannekadu nekadu to the cat, at the cat
tüonnekedadu tüannekedadi nekedadu to the kitten, at the kitten
tüonnekaupu tüannekaupu nekaupu towards the cat
tüonnekproximu tüannekproximu nekproximu near the cat, next to the cat
tüonnekaultu tüannekaultu nekaultu above the cat
tüonnekúlemu tüannekúlemu nekúlemu below the cat's feet/paws
Associated terms
nekmankaurde cat food
nektaulite litterbox
esper

This chart serves to address and amend the derivational defects in Esperanto; esper-'s definition remains as "hope".

Word Meaning
espère hope
esperi associated with hope
esperu in the manner/way of hope
esperiène one who hopes, a hopeful one; hoper
esperar to hope
esperat SBJ hope(s)
esperait! hope!
esperant[12] SBJ is hoping/continues to hope
esperanté[12] that which is hoping/continues to hope
esperantiène[12] someone who is hoping/continues to hope
esperaijat about to hope, going to hope
esperaijiène someone who is about to hope
esperaid hoped (past participle stem)
esperavant having hoped
esperaide that which is hoped
espereuzi full of hope; hopeful
espereuzu hopefully
esperonde a desperate one
esperondi hopeless, desperate, despondent
esperondu hopelessly, desperately
esperondide despair (n), hopelessness, despondency
esperondar despair (v)
esperanfeli hope-prone
esperaine the result of hoping
esperide state of hope
esperesilabode source of hope
aurdesperar to hope for
aurdesperat SBJ hope(s) for
aurdesperant SBJ is hoping for/continues to hope for
aurdesperanté that which is hoping for/continues to hope for
aurdesperantiène someone who is hoping for/continues to hope for
aurdesperaijat about to hope for, going to hope for
aurdesperaijiène someone who is about to hope for (something)
aurdesperaid hoped for
aurdesperavant having hoped for
aurdesperaide that which is hoped for
tropesperar to overhope
esperṣerivar to dash one's hopes
Esperlinge Esperanto (literally "language of hope")
Esperlingparliène someone who speaks Esperanto
Esperlingdoseliène teacher of Esperanto
Esperlinglẽrniène student of Esperanto
Esperlingiziène Esperanto translator
Esperlingsábante Esperanto expert/professional
Esperlingloaké Esperanto devotee/fan
Espernongi in Esperanto
Joalespère Good Hope
east

This next table compares forms in Kayardild , an extinct Aboriginal Australian language, with their Relformaide equivalents. (Based on Evans (2010), p. 164https://books.google.com/books?id=A7dNZLHvW-cC.)

Root: ri- (east)
Kayardild Relformaide English
riya easte east
rilungka eastaupu to the east, eastward
riyananganda eastaupu to the east of
rilumbanda eastesile easterner
riinda easttüvvant moving from the east
riliida eastäuvvasant heading ever eastward
riliji houteastaupu far to the east
rinyinda eastoṛkúzobadi at the eastern extremity of
ringurrnga proltrannyeasti east across a geographical discontinuity
riinkirida parlaupeasttüvvänkkúzobadu at the boundary you meet moving from the east toward the point of speech
rimali eastätté hey you in the east!
riinmali easttüvvantté hey you coming from the east!
rilumali eastäuvvantté hey you going eastward!
rilumirdamirda eastoṛdúgaungtenadu in the dugong grounds to the east
rilunganda eastesiŕsúflé easterly wind
rilurayaanda vüëinnochemöreastägguersile previous night’s camp in the east
rilijatha (seb)eastauproular turn (self) round to the east
rilijulutha eastäummouvvar move something to the east
eastäuttuedtendoarmar sleep with one’s head to the east
rimarutha eastäuvvéyar look to the east
riinmarutha eastesilvéyar look from the east
fraul

Below is a comparison between Relformaide and Novial, an alternative to Esperanto. Novial was devised by Danish linguist Otto Jespersen in the late 1920s; this sample is taken from his 1928 work, An International Language, with variations of mari/fraul-/marry (and in the English version, related terms) marked in bold.[13]

Novial Relformaide English
Li pastoro ha mari Paul e Anna. Paul ha mari se a Anna. Les blid mari yer; dunke les es nun marit. Paul es Annan marito, e la es li marita de Paul. Anna esed charmanti kom marienda. After li mario li du marites departad a Paris por li mari-voyaje. Nus espera ke li mariteso sal es felisi. Lo pastoro fraulinzavat Paulo nend Anya. Paulo fraulizavat auvek Anya. Lumés pébat fraulizaid vüëiddíemwobu; ńẽrgim lumés noutadu fraulizaidat. Paulo bat Anyoza fraulo, nend luma bat Paulozo fraula. Anya pébat chạrmanti nand fraulaija. Áprev le fraulfeste, le fraultousène peräuvvat Párieze wob selbtouvoze fraulvé. Més esperat le fraulide fébat froli. The clergyman has married Paul and Anna. Paul has married Anna. They were married yesterday; thus they are now married. Paul is Anna's husband, and she is Paul's wife. Anna was charming as bride. After the wedding the married couple left for Paris on their wedding-trip. We hope the marriage (state of being married) will be happy.

Complex

In Relformaide, a phrase like "Although you really tried to make this play unsuccessful" can be rendered as the more analytic Mólen té pépógirújat haulemízante der esine dúlane, or the more morphologically complex Tośpédúlanēsinhaulemiśpógirujmólenu. The first form is used in general speech and writing, while the latter is mainly confined to print demonstrations of the language's agglutinative tendencies.

Morpheme breakdown
Morphemes Form Meaning Notes
haulem Haulem- Unsuccessful, a failure Hawaiian
haulem iz Haulemiz- To turn into a failure Translative case suffix
dúlan haulem iz Dúlanhaulemiz- To render a play (for stage or screen) unsuccessful Tagalog dula(an)
dúlan esin haulem iz Dúlanēsinhaulemiz- To render this play unsuccessful Demonstrative pronoun; Estonian/Finnish
dúlan esin haulem iz pog Dúlanēsinhaulemiśpog- To try rendering this play unsuccessful Dutch pogen
dúlan esin haulem iz pog iruj Dúlanēsinhaulemiśpógiruj- To strongly try rendering this play unsuccessful Emphatic marker; Marshallese
dúlan esin haulem iz pog iruj dúlanēsinhaulemiśpógiruj- SBJ strongly tried rendering this play unsuccessful Past tense augment
t oz dúlan esin haulem iz pog iruj Tośpédúlanēsinhaulemiśpógiruj- Your past serious attempt to make this play unsuccessful 2nd person familiar + genitive case suffix
t oz dúlan esin haulem iz pog iruj mólen Tośpédúlanēsinhaulemiśpógirujmólen- Although you really tried to make this play unsuccessful Concessive case suffix; Greek
t oz dúlan esin haulem iz pog iruj mólen u Tośpédúlanēsinhaulemiśpógirujmólenu Although you really tried to make this play unsuccessful Adverb termison
Note Note:

Notes

  1. See also section 4.1 in "Proposed Guidelines for the Design of an Optimal International Auxiliary Language" by Richard K. Harrison, 2001 (9th draft):
    "The language should be designed so that all compounds can be unambiguously divided into their constituent morphemes, and so that no single morpheme can be mistaken for a combination of several morphemes. Confusion can occur if such auto-analysis is not designed into the language; for example, the Dutch word kwartslagen can mean 'quarter beats' (kwart + slagen) or 'quartz layers' (kwarts + lagen); the Esperanto word sukero might mean 'sugar' (suker + o) or 'a drop of juice' (suk + er + o). While it is true that context can usually indicate which meaning is intended, there is no reason for such morphemic ambiguity to exist in an optimal language design."
  2. Only found after avar/avat &c. (have/has) in analytic constructs.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Ède and édide are among Relformaide's very few palindromic words; a handful of palindromic roots also exist.
  4. In Relformaide, "knowledge" translates to sabantide or sabaide (depending on the context).
  5. Used in certain sentences with two or more subjects/objects.
  6. See Haspelmath (2006), p. 9https://www.scribd.com/document/118102864/Case-grammar.
  7. Cf. French chez.
  8. Several directional suffixoids substitute the generic túdel when necessary:
    • -eask (left) — obeneaskad/obenöuteaskad (at the left side of the house)
    • -zusk (right) — obenzuskad/obenöunzuskad (at the right side of the house)
    • -élog (front) — obenélogad/obenouzélogad (at the front side of the house)
    • -vúdel (back) — obenvúdelad/obenöuvvúdelad (at the back side of the house)
    • -noard (north) — obennoardad/obenouśnoardad (at the north side of the house)
    • -sud (south) — obensúdad/obenouśsúdad (at the south side of the house)
    • -east (east) — obeneastad/obenöuteastad (at the east side of the house)
    • -west (left) — obenwestad/obenöutwestad (at the west side of the house)
  9. This differs from -ausom, the superlative comparison suffix.
  10. Plũrim- can be substituted by any of the other number roots, or compounds thereof: obentrïttuig (three of the houses), obendeytuig (ten of the houses), obenoatdeiśkauttuig (84 of the houses).
  11. This differs from -ausm, the comparative comparison suffix.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 As Justin B. Rye jokes in "Onomastics", "If Esperanto participles were fully regular, the word esperanto would mean a temporary outbreak of hope, and Zamenhof's pen‐name would have been la Doktoro Esperantulo!"
  13. As Jespersen also noted,
    "Ido has here the verb mariajar 'to marry' with the derivatives mariajo or mariajeso 'marriage,' mariajatulo 'married man,' mariajatino 'married woman,' with the variants mariajitulo, mariajitino; mariajo-festo 'wedding'; further, the independent words spozo, spozulo, spozino for husband and wife. - Occ has maritagie, marito, marita, for 'married couple' maritates, for wedding (eheschliessung) maritagie, maritantie, and for 'married state' (ehestand) matrimonie. Novial thus gets off cheaper than either of these languages."
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