Relformaide Dictionary:Grammar/Syntax

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← Special classes Grammar of Relformaide:
Syntax
Precision →

Constituent order

Subject–verb–object

Relformaide's default constituent order, like that of English, is Subject–verb–object (SVO). This sentence is typical of the SVO structure:

SámoS pémankatV ouranjés.O (Sam ate oranges.)

Subject–object–verb

Many natural languages possess a Subject–object–verb (SOV) order; in Relformaide, this leads to something like

SámoS ńouranjésO pémankat.V

which appears illogical and confusing; some may assume it was Sam's oranges who did all the eating, not Sam himself. To resolve this, the ergative marker -ieb- is employed between the root and the end marker, resulting in:

SámieboS ńouranjésO pémankat.V

Owing to Relformaide's agglutinative capacities, the last two words can resolve into a compound verb that translates into "orange-eating". In the first two examples, pémankat is a transitive verb; here, the resulting form is intransitive since no object follows it.

SámoS perouranjmankat.V

In this case, the subject is an absolutive proper noun that retains its original form, and the past tense augment pé- assumes its pre-vowel form of per-.

Object–subject–verb

Another constituent order, Object–subject–verb (OSV), is associated with Yoda of the Star Wars saga; otherwise, this is extremely rare in natural languages as a default order. Nonetheless, English uses it from time to time, as can Relformaide in certain situations like this one:

OuranjésO SámoS pémankat.V (Oranges Sam ate.)

OSV sentences can also utilise the -lé/-lo/-la and -uno/-una/-une suffixes:

LivrileO l'aumbraS pélezat.V (The book, the woman once read.)
Neu-Yorke,O S mouvveyámelat.V (New York, I always visit.)

Verb–object–subject

English employs a similar pattern, Verb–object–subject (VOS), in various humorous expressions. Relformaide also accommodates it in certain cases, such as:

SkríbatV une livré,O l'aumbredo.S (Wrote a book, the boy.)

or even more accessibly:

SkríbatV une livré,O ńesan'aumbredo.S (Wrote a book, that boy.)

Relformaide requires a comma plus an article, determiner, or demonstrative (esin/esan) before the subject in VOS statements, or else they could appear rather unnatural as well.

PémankatV ouranjés,O esane Sámo.S (He's eating oranges, that Sam.) (Note that esane does not decline into esano, as the subject's identity is not yet immediately known.)

Object–verb–subject

The regular subject and object can be reversed, leading to an Object–verb–subject (OVS) setup like:

OuranjésO pémankatV Sámo.S (Oranges ate Sam.)

Unmarked ergatively, this reads like an excerpt from a science-fiction story. Again, -ieb- must be used to distinguish the subject, as in:

OuranjésO pémankatV Sámiebo.S

which is equivalent to the passive statement "Oranges were eaten by Sam." Pronouns ending in -io/-ia/-ié are exempt from this rule, as demonstrated in the next section.

Verb–subject–object

As in French, the uncommon Verb–subject–object (VSO) is used to form question statements in Relformaide:

PémankatV SámoS lémaunes?O (Did Sam eat lemons?)

If pronouns are involved, they are attached to the verb with a hyphen:

Pémoavvéyat-téVS mio?O (Did you visit me?)

If the object begins with a vowel, then ń- is added for elision purposes.

Pémoavvéyat-lumaVS ńustiés?O (Did she visit you guys?)
PémankatV SámoS ńouranjés?O (Did Sam eat oranges?)

VSO is also found in optative statements, using imperative marker -ait:

Hildait-lumésVS joali hildlé.O (May they fight the good fight.)
NérelaitV DíevoS malaigíenesanes.O (May God forgive those who have commited sin.)
Tenait-jomlapinlaVS benstásénis ódrés.O (May the expectant rabbit have well-behaved kits.)
Vévait-toVS ńósot seiśtrige. (May you live to be 103.)

VSO (without the object) also occurs in "There is/was/were" statements, such as:

PéhanadatV doarmanti nâyunoS ńaibũrproximi...AdvP (There was a sleeping dog next to the tree...)
Note Note:

Advanced structure

With subjects and objects

Pronouns only

Standard Relformaide nouns and pronouns are unchanged in the nominative and absolutive forms. The accusative is only used in pronouns, as seen in the following variations of the simple sentence "She loves him". (Again, the ń- is placed on vowel-initial words if vowel termisons follow them.)

LumaS ńaimatV lumio.O
LumaS lumioV ńaimat.O (= She him loves.)
LumioO lumaS ńaimat.V (= Him she loves.)
LumioO ńaimatV luma.S (= Him loves she.)
AimatV lumio,O luma.S (= Loves him she.)
Aimat-lumaVS lumio?O (Does she love him? = Loves she him?)
Subject pronoun, object noun

If the subject remains a pronoun but the object is a noun, the ergative marker is not needed. Here, "She loves him" becomes "She loves the man", and luma is the same as before:

LumaS ńaimatV l'aumbro.O
LumaS l'aumbroO ńaimat.V (= She the man loves.)
L'aumbroO lumaS ńaimat.V (= The man she loves.)
L'aumbroO ńaimatV luma.S (= The man loves she.)
AimatV l'aumbro,O luma.S (= Loves the man, she.)
Aimat-lumaVS l'aumbro?O (Does she love the man? = Loves she the man?)
Subject noun, object pronoun

The reverse occurs in sentences such as "The lady loves him"; here, lumio is clearly distinguished as the accusative.

L'aumbraS ńaimatV lumio.O
L'aumbraS lumioO ńaimat.V (= The lady him loves.)
LumioO l'aumbraS ńaimat.V (= Him the lady loves.)
LumioO ńaimatV l'aumbra.S (= Him loves the lady.)
AimatV lumio,O l'aumbra.S (= Loves him, the lady.)
AimatV l'aumbraS lumio?O (Does the lady love him? = Loves the lady him?)
Nouns only

Relformaide exhibits split-ergative capabilities when both a sentence's subject and object are standard nouns, thus demanding the ergative marker when necessary. (See also the examples involving "Sam ate oranges" above.)

L'aumbraS ńaimatV l'aumbro.O (The woman loves the man.)
AumbrieblaS l'aumbroO ńaimat.V (= The woman the man loves.)
L'aumbroO ńaimatV l'aumbrieba.S (The man is loved by the woman./The woman loves the man.)
Aimat-aumbrilaVS l'aumbro?O (Does the woman love the man?)
L'aumbroS ńaimatV l'aumbra.O (The man loves the woman.)
AumbriebloS l'aumbraO ńaimat.V (= The man the woman loves.)
L'aumbraO ńaimatV l'aumbriebo.S (The woman is loved by the man./The man loves the woman.)
Aimat-aumbriloVS l'aumbra?O (Does the man love the woman?)

With indirect objects

Below is another example of SVO in Relformaide:

AnyaS proadatV (le) fáloave.O (Anne sells [the] bread.) (As in English, use of le [the] before the object is optional.)

When indirect objects are involved, -ad is placed in the word referring to the receiver:

AnyaS ńóbratV l'aumbrédadoI (le) fáloave.O (Anne gives the boy [the] bread.)
AnyaS ńóbratV nekälléI (le) leché.O (Anne gives the cat [the] milk.)

If the object precedes the indirect, then either -ad is used standalone:

AnyaS ńóbratV fáloave/fáloavléO ńad l'edo.I (Anne gives [the] bread to the boy.)
AnyaS ńóbratV leché/lechileO ńad neklé.I (Anne gives [the] milk to the cat.)

or the case-converted word becomes an adverbial phrase:

AnyaS ńóbratV fáloave/fáloavléO tuomedadu.AdvP (Anne gives [the] bread to the boy.) (The -u precedes the gender marker in masculine or feminine dative nouns.)
AnyaS ńóbratV leché/lechileO nekadu.AdvP (Anne gives [the] milk to the cat.)

With appositive phrases

Apposition involves the use of two phrases, one of which serves to identify the other. For example:

Montserrat,S a volcanic island in the Caribbean...A

Here, Montserrat is the antecedent subject, and volcanic island... is the appositive phrase describing it. In Relformaide, the suffix -erij-, which stands in for jíer- (which/that) and jíen- (who), marks the noun in the appositive:

Maunzerạte,S vaulkenif'ansulunerije ńad le Karibine...A

When the appositive phrase refers to an occupation or role, -erij- is still used:

Moza Ríanto:S JoalerijoA (My Father the Hero, title of a 1991 French comedy and its 1994 U.S. remake)

This example is similar to those in the previous section:

Anyieba,S moza siblerija,A bematV fáloave/fáloavlé.O (Anne, my sister, buys [the] bread.)

This sentence makes use of both apposition and indirect objects:

Luma,S trúmeni lapinedunerija,A peróbratV selboza ríantadaI zanaurunes.O (She, a kind rabbit girl, gave her mother some carrots.)

When the appositive phrase describes the object, -erij- marks the appositive's noun:

LumaS pémoavatV selboza ríanta,O fami kantíenunerija.A (She met her [own] mother, a famous singer.)

This rule also takes effect in questions such as:

Dúbitat-téVS mia,O joalausomi krikítíenlerija yorbu?A (Are you doubting me, the best cricket player around?)

In certain sentences with at least two subjects or objects, one must apply -erij- to tell the apposition apart from other subjects. In an English sentence such as:

She, the queen, and several others were going.

it is hard to tell whether "she" refers to the queen or someone else. In Relformaide, this resolves to:

Luma, la kima, nend plũrimótrés pévant.

At face value, the "luma" refers to someone else who is not the queen. If she really is the queen, one can prevent ambiguity by saying:

Luma kimeriji nend plũrimótrés pévant. (= She [identified as the queen] and several others were going.)

This is helpful in more complex scenarios, such as:

Lumo, toujíenunerijo, nend luma, duerskríbíenunerija, péfraulaijat. (He, an adventurer, and she, a romance writer, were about to marry.)

-erij also translates English of, and French/Spanish de, when they stand for "also known/named as/called":

L'ouremardeS Chíkágerijo...A (The city of Chicago...)
Le vaulkenif'ansuleS Maunzerạterije...A (The volcanic island of Montserrat...)
Note Note:
An example of appositives in conlangs can be found in the grammar of Nåmúþ, a fictional constructed language constituting part of the Akana universe. Among natural languages, Basque provides some specimens involving the ergative case; see "Examples (1943) and (1944)" in Hualde and de Urbina (2003), p. 804https://books.google.com/books?id=nIaPL4kLt6cC.
See also the notes on apposition in Rick Harrison's grammar of constructed language Vorlin (2006 revision).

With relative clauses

-erij- is also found between the stem and termison(s) in the target verbs of relative clauses:

Puerchedlo, ńaulmaderijat vuoli strouzetile, ńäuvvant toargenile. (The little pig who lives down the lane is going to market.)
Mé pévéyat plovärlla, péresterijat eskellés Kastriezis nënzzol pépauzavat aurd un'abimaubré ńágrotvíandi. (I saw the ship, which was docked in Castries harbour and had stopped for a fresh supply of livestock.) (Note the zol after nend; otherwise, the speaker is assumed to go for the livestock, not the ship. Zol's role is discussed in the Suffixaufnahme section.)
Voaŕinealle péchaulferijat intad mozés ouremète nouprev sieze sepèmes teśnanderivaidant. (The plane that crashed into our town six weeks ago is quickly being cleared away.)
Lumo moz'amitat duerṣerijat mośsiblieba. (He is my friend whom my sister loves.) (The last two words literally mean "who is loved by my sister"; note the epenthetic buffer and ergative -ieb.)
Luma mozo siblat aubimausmerijat mikuamuo. (She is my sister, who is smaller than me.)
Luma mozo siblat m'aubimausmerijat selbkuamu. (She is my sister, whom I am smaller than.) (Here, selb- agrees with luma.)
Note Note:

This was inspired by the examples in "TL", a Latin-based conlang by Redditor "cyprinus_carpio" (May 2018 thread).

With passive voice

While various languages can handle passive statements such as "The biscuit is eaten by Anne", Relformaide has no exact equivalent for the word by in this context. OVS order (and -ieb- for the ergative subject) must be used, resulting in:

Guispellé O mankatV Anyieba.S (Anne eats the biscuit.)

As passive voice is generally discouraged in some circles, the same sentence can be simply written as Anya mankat guispellé.

Below are another two sentences in the passive voice:

GuispellésO bematV Anyieba.S (The biscuits are bought by Anne.)
GuispellésO proadatV lẽrníenieblas.S (The biscuits are sold by the girl students.)

When the past participle form of a verb is also a stem, an OVS variant—OV(I)S—also applies:

GuispellésO óbraidatV Anyada.I (The biscuits are received by Anne.) (Óbr-aid literally means "be given", and the dative -ad- indicates whom it was given to. One can further use something like ...noagelíeniebla [...through the lady swimmer] to ergatively indicate the giver.)

With past participles

This example from a late 19th-century edition of McGuffey's Reader demonstrates the use of the past participle:

NedoS paskulavatPPV poulla.O (Ned has fed the hen.)[1]

With adjectives as object complements

In the English sentence "The cards painted the roses red", the adjective "red" is the object complement, and assumes the translative case in its Relformaide counterpart:

KärllésS pésivelaigatV roazilesO roubizu.AdvP

Synthesis

These four versions of a sentence from the same volume, "The cat is on the mat"[2] (with an indirect object, but none direct), demonstrate Relformaide's syntactic flexibility:

  1. Neklé ńíakat gófrile. (Slightly agglutinating, 10 morphemes / 3.333/word)
  2. Neklé gófríakat. (Agglutinating, 6 morphemes / 3/word)
  3. Gófríännèke. (Polysynthetic, 4 morphemes in a single word)

Emphasis increases as more affixes combine to modify the root. The first two forms are more or less written as in English, and the third approaches levels seen in Hungarian, Turkish, and Finnish among others. In all three, the emphasis is placed on gófr- and its location thereof.

The last structure is typical of many an indigenous language of the Americas (such as Greenlandic and Central Alaskan Yup'ik in the Eskimo-Aleut family). Here, the focus shifts to nèke, the subject of the original English sentence. As glossed, it essentially translates to "mat-on_surface-cat-N" (gófr-íak-nek-é).

Emphasis

Topical

A special intrafix in Relformaide, -eun- (from Korean eun [은]), serves the same function as the English phrases "speaking of", "as for", "on the subject of", and "when it comes to". In a sentence such as:

Mariya ńaimat selboza ríanta. (Mary loves her mother.)

the subject can be converted into a topic, resulting in:

Mariyeuna ńaimat selboza ríanta. (As for Mary, she loves her mother.)

-eun- is also employed when the second half of certain sentences discusses an aspect of the first, as shown in:

Stuveuno Hopps sujat holómi zanauragrotíenuno jíenoz'ódra voulbremat póliezíenuna. (Speaking of Stu Hopps, he's a prosperous carrot farmer whose daughter wants to be a police officer.)
Dauruētesinēunu, lẽrníeniles kríonat. (Speaking of this class, the students are smart.)

The intrafix is also seen in cleft sentences, such that the first example can be interpreted in English as "It is Mary who loves her mother". In these translations of samples from the Wikipedia article linked to in this paragraph, the object or focus verb is tagged regardless of word order:

  • Joêyeuno més lorgant. (OSV)/Més lorgant Joêyeuno. (SVO) (It's Joey [whom] we're looking for.)
  • Dínereune m'aimat. (OSV)/M'aimat dínereune. (SVO) (It's money that I love.)
  • Esil Jaunēuno luma peraudat les nívites./Luma peraudat les nívites esil Jaunēuno. (It was from John that she heard the news.)
  • Lumo pévoulbemat une Fiateune. (What he wanted to buy was a Fiat.)
  • Seulu jaurad més peradvenēunat le hótèle, més pémoavat lumia. (It wasn't until we arrived at the hotel that we met her.)

-eun is also used for gnomic statements and proverbs:

  • Soleune premat eastadu, nend fímat westadu. (The sun rises in the east, and sets in the west.)
  • Dinereune naŕkrezat aibũríaku. (Money doesn't grow on trees.)
  • Díeveuno ńauxilat esanes jière sebhaizat. (Heaven helps those who help themselves.)

Negation

This sentence is a normal example of a negative statement in Relformaide:

Mé naŕperäuvvat plájile. (I didn't go to the beach.)

The nal- negator can also be placed before the subject or object for emphatic focus, resulting in:

Naŕmé peräuvvat plájile. (I didn't go to the beach [but someone else did].)
Mé peräuvvat nal plájile. (I didn't go to the beach [but somewhere else].)

Interrogation

Another special intrafix, -iruj-, is used in questions for emphasis on the topic or action. -iruj- is borrowed from the Austronesian Marshallese language, and functions similarly to Bulgarian li (ли). For these variants of the statement Peräuvvat-té le plaje? (Did you go to the beach?), the focus in the English equivalent is underlined.

Peräuvvirújat-té plájile? (Did you go to the beach?) (The respondee may have done something else there, or just stopped over.)
Peräuvvat-tiruje plájile? (Did you go to the beach?) (Some friend of the respondee may have visited instead of them.)
Peräuvvat-té plájiliruje? (Did you go to the beach?) (The respondee may have visited a different beach.)
Peräuvvat-té plájirujile? (Did you go to the beach?) (The asker expected the respondee to be there, but the latter may have decided to call it off or change plans.)

Self-interrogation is accomplished with -ódiv-, which carries the same meaning as Finnish han/hän ("I wonder if...") and is found mainly in verbs:

Äuvvirujódivant-luma Guadloupe? (I wonder if she's really going to Guadeloupe?)
Kière hódiezódivat hanadu? (Hmmm...what's going on over there?)
Tortougesano vuelaijódivat noutadu; mo févinkirújat selbio! (Beats me if that tortoise is gonna run now...I'll beat him for sure!)
Note Note:
These usage examples were inspired by:

Evidentiality

Relformaide has four evidentiality particles used in verbs: -zeg, -zem, -zeng, and -zev.

zeg

-zeg denotes reported statements and indirect speech in sentences. This counterpart to dez- (say) is borrowed from Dutch, and is equivalent to English "they say/it is said (that...)".

  • Lumo pézegat selbo félezat livrile. (He said, "I'll read the book.")
  • Proadune premzegat nodemu. (They say a sale will begin today [literally, "A sale is said to begin today"].)

zem

-zem, derived from the Hungarian szem (eye) and corresponding to vey- (see), denotes visual evidence by a speaker.

  • Lumèdes ludzémant plájadu. (I see kids playing on the beach.)
  • Loaklo pévuelzémat bankintaupu. (The madman was seen running into the bank.)

zeng

-zeng, a portmanteau of the French and Ket words for "feel", corresponds to toag(aid)- (touch[ed]) as the sensory evidence marker.

  • Choulzengat. (Feels cold.)
  • Húminile péziginzengat. (The ground shook [I felt it].)

zev

-zev, based on the Tamil/Telugu/Malayalam cevi (ear), corresponds to aud- (hear) and marks auditory evidence.

  • Nâylés péwoufzevat túgadu. (I heard the dogs barking outside.)
  • Sîgloanile proximäuzzévant miés. (Hear those winds? That hurricane's coming closer to us.)

Possessives

Relformaide employs six morphemes to express alienable and inalienable possession. Alienable items are likely to part from their possessor at any time, while inalienable items are inseparable from them.

Possession type Morpheme type
Possessive intrafix Proprietive intrafix Particle
Alienable -orz- -ten den
Inalienable -oz- -zol der

In Relformaide, English -'s is represented by the genitive/inalienable -oz- and the possessive/alienable -orz-. Either intrafix is always placed between the root and the gender marker in nouns, as in:

Jainoza vaulde (Jane's ball, i.e. the one she owns); mozríantozo kloché (my father's clock, i.e. his heirloom); julgíenozla livrés (the judge's books, i.e. those she needs for her job); Jaurjorzo véyeande (George's glasses, i.e. what he borrowed from a friend).

When a possessed object's first letter is a vowel, the ń- is placed directly before it:

lumozo ńeandes (his tools); mozríantorzo ńansule (my father's island, i.e. the place he calls home).

Whereas Romance languages use phrases such as la maison de mon oncle (French)/la casa de mi tío (Spanish), Relformaide uses either

l'obène der lumoza ríablo (the house of her uncle)

or

l'obène lumoza ríablozońi (her uncle's house)

where a genitive adjective states whom the house belongs to. In certain complex cases, the standalone der/den is employed:

Int chórivune der La Mancha, jíenoze naume mé naŕfévoulchembat... (In a village of La Mancha whose name I hardly wish to recall...)
L'ótrizaine der livré... (The declension of the word livré [book]...)
Lofärllé den Nóaho... (The mountain of Noah [Mount Ararat])

A pronoun stem followed by -oz-/-orz- also forms possessive-based prefixes before nouns:

esine mozobène (this house of mine = this in-my-possession house); torśmóbillé (the car you're renting = the in-your-holding car).

If the possessor's gender is stated, then either tuom- (masculine) or tuam- (feminine) is placed before the target stem. Tuom- and tuam- are chiefly found in complex compounds, substituting the respective -o and -a termisons.

tüallumozlivresane (that book of hers); tuommorśsátrokesine (this hat of mine; male speaker).

Relformaide also utilises the rare proprietive case through another two intrafixes, -ten- (indicating alienable possession or bodily/emotional conditions) and -zol- (indicating ownership). The proprietive denotes an item owned or held by a sentence's referent, and is virtually nonexistent in natural languages outside several indigenous ones from Australia (including Martuthunira and Kayardild).

Mé pémoavat l'aumbra móbilärnzoli. (I met the lady with the big car.)
Dúbitat-tiebé mio, ńaumbrunerijo sohenvalïtteni? (Are you doubting me, a man of such worth?)

Suffixaufnahme

At least eight morphemes in Relformaide—-ieb-, -oz-, -ten-, -zol-, -ad-, -emek-, -aseb-, and -auvek—exhibit traits of the linguistic phenomenon known as Suffixaufnahme, German for "case stacking".

Ergative

-ieb- helps distinguish the agent of a sentence in complex OSV/SOV sentences.

ChónuneO shouliebi mórinuniebeS mankat.V (A white mouse eats a cat.) (For more examples, see § Precision: Cat and mouse.)

In passive-voice sentences, only the noun is tagged:

Dolzile pémankat shouli mórinieblé. (The sweet was eaten by the white mouse.)

-ieb- also represents English both in sentences such as:

Ríkiebo nend Nanzieba vuelat eskolaupu díemaivu. (Both Rick and Nancy run to school every day.)

Possessive

When two or more subjects are associated with an entity, -oz- tags all of them as "joint possessives" or "compound possessives". If the subjects share the same entity, then the comitative aseb conjunction precedes the last subject:

Jaunozo ńaseb Mariyoza pastèle (John and Mary's cake)
Jaunozo, Mariyoza, ńaseb Jóséfozo pastèle (John, Mary, and Joseph's cake)

If the subjects have at least one of the entities described, then nend is used instead; the entity noun must be pluralised.

Jaunozo nend Mariyoza pastèles (John's and Mary's cakes)
Jaunozo, Mariyoza, nend Jósefozo pastèles (John's, Mary's, and Joseph's cakes)

A similar situation happens with -ten- and -zol-:

Luma pémoavat un'animaldauktera, Saint-Îvésenäuvvantzoli sepchonzoli móbiŕzolinti. (She met a lady veterinarian, bound for St. Ives with seven cats in her own car.)
Taumazo perauxilat l'eda nâyteni ńobententúgi. (Thomas helped the girl, who was outside her [relatives'] house, with the dog.)

Dative

In addition to its normal function as an indirect/dative marker, -ad- can also tag attributes associated with the indirect object of a sentence.

Ma peróbrat l'aumbrado Bilbáonesiladi moza dreƒfonaistière. (I gave my xylophone to the man from Bilbao.)
Ma peróbrat l'aumbrado noulsátrokzoladi lumoza vailtenière. (I gave the man with the black hat her suitcase.)

Instrumental

This example replicates a specimen found in Double Case: Agreement by Suffixaufnahme (Plank (1995), p. 400https://books.google.com/books?id=0EDl8_gmmvQC):

Mé péshoubat vuemiles tüossiblozemeku reshilēmeku. (I caught the fish with the brother's net.)

Comitative

As with the instrumental, the comitative also tags associated genitives.

Mé pévat tüoppastorövasebu tuamódrasebu. (I went along with the pastor's daughter.)

Below is another example, based on Plank (1995), p. 84https://books.google.com/books?id=0EDl8_gmmvQC; here the last complex plural agrees with the first modifier.

Més pévéyat elda ńótröutasebi guertesilöutasebi. (We saw a/the old woman with other people from the garden.)

Conjunctive

The conjunctive particle -auvek behaves the same way as -aseb:

Lumés tánulat Baibullé Díeɖdièmaivu Jaunozauveku tírombainauveku. (They study the Bible every Sunday as part of John's congregation.)
Note Note:
The above examples were inspired by this reply by "Valdeut" (from a March 2016 discussion entitled "Basque's Surdéclinaison") at the zompist bboard.
The use of -ieb- to denote "both" was inspired by the West Greenlandic sample at the Leipzig Glossing Rules page.

Quotations and punctuation

Relformaide is written similarly to English; its quotation marks («», wilémètes) are borrowed from French.

«Kiène lumbat?» pézegat l'aumbrelda.
«Mio, Róbairto,» péverjautat selboz'ódro.
"Who is it?" said the old lady.
"It's me, Robert," replied her son.
«Mo naŕpékroyábilat lumé jaurad julgíenlo pézégat, ‹Naule pointes!›» pézégat l'edo.
"I couldn't believe it when the judge said, 'Nul points!'" said the boy.

Otherwise, its punctuation system remains unchanged.

Zẽrdéblo ńäggaunat trig'eldausmis síblas—l'oantema toutrazu triesti, touƒtemla froŕámeli, nend l'aulttema duimétanti.
The fennec kit has three older sisters—one forever sad, another occasionally happy, and the last a slight bore.
Ma naŕperaigat lumié, ma shũrat; ótrune péhaizat!
I didn't do it, I swear; someone else did!
Péhanat seulbíenuna mo péfídeŕábilat: Sebmoz'eldoubranti doslíena.
There was only one person I could trust: My own aging teacher.
Esane droalat... Esine móbile pékoutat madés oanard'íroaves (€1,000,000)?!
That's funny... This car cost us a million Euros (€1,000,000)?!

References

  1. "Lesson VII" in McGuffey (1896), p. 13https://archive.org/stream/mcguffeysfirstec00mcgu_1
  2. "Lesson II" in McGuffey (1896), p. 8https://archive.org/stream/mcguffeysfirstec00mcgu_1
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