Relformaide Dictionary:Grammar/Special classes

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Special classes
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Numbers

Cardinal

Relformaide's number system is akin to those of Romance languages:

# Relformaide English
Multiplicative
(d × n)
Additive
(dx + n)
0 naul naul- zero
1 oan one
2 touv two
3 trig three
4 kaut four
5 kin five
6 siez six
7 sep seven
8 oat eight
9 nev nine
10 dey deiz ten
20 hogel hogoiz twenty
100 sent seiz hundred
1,000 kílog kíloiz (below 1,000,000);
kílog- (above 1,000,000)
thousand
1,000,000 oanard oanard- million
1,000,000,000 kílogard kílogard- billion
1,000,000,000,000 oantéran oantéran- trillion
1 × 1015 kílöttéran kílöttéran- quadrillion
1 × 1018 oanexan oanexan- quintillion
1 × 1021 kílogexan kílogexan- sextillion
1 × 1024 oanyotan oanyotan- septillion
1 × 1027 kílogyotan kílogyotan- octillion
1 × 1030 oanardyotan oanardyotan- nonillion
1 × 1033 kílogardyotan kílogardyotan- decillion

Relformaide has two words each for 10 (dey/deiz), 100 (sent/seiz), and 1,000 (kílog/kíloiz); hyphens separate words for higher values like oanard (1,000,000), kílogard (1,000,000,000), and so forth. This helps distinguish a combination like kindeiśsep (57) from kindeysep (350; literally "fifty sevens"/50 × 7).

The number system is addition- and multiple-based, resulting in the likes of deizoan (11), deiśtouv (12), deiśtrig (13), deiśkin (15), touɖdey (20), touɖdeizoan (21), trïddey (30), käuddey (40), kindey (50), sepdeizoat (78), seiśtouɖdeiśnev (129), kinseiśtrïddeiśtrig (533), touӄkílöiddeiśsiez (2016), kindeiśtrïkkílog (53,000), seiśkäuddeykílog (140,000), and so forth. Complex numbers such as oanard-touƒseiśtrïddeiśkäukkílog-kinseiśsïeddeiśsep (1,234,567) are hyphenated.

Ordinal

Ordinal forms are denoted by the -tem suffix, as in oantem (first/1st), touƒtem (second/2nd), trïttem (third/3rd), deiśsieśtem (sixteenth/16th), touɖdeiśneƒtem (twenty-ninth/29th), and senttem (hundredth/100th). Values up to 31st (trïddeizoantem) are used in expressing simple calendar dates.

Fractional

Fractions are expressed with the -tim suffix, as in touƒtim (one half/½), trïttim (one third/⅓), kauttim (a quarter/¼), oattim (one eight/⅛), deytim (a tenth / 1/10), touɖdeiśkintim (a twenty-fifth / 1/25), and senttim (a hundredth / 1/100). If higher than one, then the dividend precedes the divisor in forms such as touve trïttim (two-thirds/⅔), trige kauttim (three-quarters/¾), kine ńoattim (five-eighths/⅝), sèpe deytim (seven-tenths / 7/10), deiśtouve touɖdeiśneƒtim (twelve in 29 / 12/29), and oanärttim (a millionth; 1/1,000,000). In the case of "sesquitertia" (an obsolete term for the 4:3 ratio), the fraction is converted into a whole word (kautraśtrïttime = 4 × ⅓).

Proximal

Estimated and approximate values are expressed with the -tam suffix, most notably in deuvam (a dozen; about twelve). Other examples include senttam (about 100), trïddeykílöttam (some 30,000), and oanärttam (roughly a million).

The -úpot suffix, meaning "near(ly)"/"almost"/"close to" in non-spatial expressions, is also used for numbers: käuddeyúpot (nearly 40), deiśkinsentúpot (almost 150), sieśkílogúpot (close to 6,000).

Decimal

Decimals can either be expressed with single numbers, or in fractions denoted by 10 to the nth power (10n). Thus, a number such as 0.421876 can be written as either naul point kaut-touv-oan-oat-sep-siez (as in English), or käusseiśtouɖdeizoankílog-oatseiśsepdeiśsieze ńoanärttim (421,876/1,000,000). Similarly, 4.21876 = kaut point touv-oan-oat-sep-siez or kaute nend deizoankílog-oatseiśsepdeiśsieze sënkkílöttim (421,876/100,000), and 18.6357 = deizoate nend siez-trig-kin-sep or seizoatdeiśsieśkílog-trigseiśkindeiśsèpe deykílöttim (186,357/10,000).

Serial

As in English, the dictation of years is split between the first and last duos of numbers, so that 1789 becomes deiśsèpe ńoatdeiśnev; 1854, deizoate kindeiśkaut; and 1945, deiśnève käuddeiśkin. If referring to 2000 or later, then something like 2006 can be interpreted as either touӄkíloiśsiez or touɖdèye naul-siez. Similarly, 2016 becomes touӄkílöiddeiśsiez or touɖdèye deiśsiez, and 2020 = touӄkílöittouɖdey or touɖdèye touɖdèye. (The last example is a rare example of reduplication in Relformaide.)

Telephone numbers are also recited by their digits. For example, 555-7824 = kin-kin-kin sep-oat-touv-kaut, and 867-5309 = oat-siez-sep kin-trig-naul-nev.

Multiplicative

Relformaide uses the -raz suffixoid to denote multiples of given numbers. It forms multiples with an -e, such as oanrazé (single); touvrazé (double); trigrazé (triple); kautrazé (quadruple); kinrazé (quintuple); and deyrazé (decuple). With -u, it corresponds to English "x-fold" or "times x", as in touvrazu (twice); kautrazu (fourfold, times four); seprazu (sevenfold); oatrazu (eightfold); deyrazu (tenfold); trïddeyrazu (thirty-fold); and sepdeiśseprazu (seventy-sevenfold).

Symbols

Relformaide's words for arithmetic operators are nend (plus/+), moin (minus/-), raz (times/×), puem (divided by/÷), and aibem (equal/=).

Dates

Days and months

Words for days of the week, and months of the year, are formed by placing díem (week) or masin (month) after the attribute they are named for.

Days
  • Díeɖdième (Sunday)
  • Loundième (Monday)
  • Hilddième (Tuesday)
  • Mẽrkoṛdième (Wednesday)
  • Joaldième (Thursday)
  • Froldième (Friday)
  • Brouddième (Saturday)
Months
  • Premmasine (January)
  • Duermasine (February)
  • Suertmasine (March)
  • Paummasine (April)
  • Troavmasine (May)
  • Fraulmasine (June)
  • Kainmasine (July)
  • Vinkmasine (August)
  • Eskolmasine (September)
  • Noulmasine (October)
  • Dolchmasine (November)
  • Fimmasine (December)

Notation

Numerical dates are written in either British (29/9/2016) or American (9/29/2016) form, and are fully written out in this matter: le touɖdeiśneƒtème der Eskolmasine touӄkílöiddeiśsiezi (the 29th of September 2016).

Interrogatives

All interrogative words in Relformaide begin with the letter k, and correspond to a core morpheme.

Word Parent morpheme English meaning Concept
kíer -íer what/which thing
kíerad ad where(by) location-related
kíeraup aup whither location-related
kíerint int wherein location-related
kíeresil esil whence location-related
kíerkout kout how much cost
kíerjían jían wherefore specific reason
kíersaum saum how much; how many amount, quality
kíerēmek emek whereby, wherewith means, instrument
kíen -íen who person
kíeni- -íen whom person
kíenoz- -íen whose person
kaurad maurad when time
kíermaurv maurv at what time time (on a clock)
kóvaud póvaud why reason
kemek emek how, wherein manner

Correlatives

With Esperanto, L.L. Zamenhof managed to compile a table of correlatives. Along with the original words (in italics), the Relformaide equivalents are presented in this replica.

Concept Category
Question (?) Indication
(this/that)
Indefinite
(some)
Universal
(each/every)
Negative
(no/not)
Quality kíer
kia
(what)
sohen
tia
(what/such a...!)
unēsen
ia
(some kind of)
toutēsen
ĉia
(every kind)
naulēsen
nenia
(no kind of)
Reason kóvaud
kial
(why)
ẽrgim
tial
(therefore, so)
unpóvaud
ial
(for some reason)
touŕpóvaud
ĉial
(for all reasons)
naulpóvaud
nenial
(for no reason)
Time kaurad
kiam
(when)
puiwob
tiam
(then)
oguil
iam
(sometime)
töurwob
ĉiam
(always)
naulwob
neniam
(never)
Place kíerad
kie
(where)
hinad/hanad
tie
(here/there)
unad
ie
(somewhere)
toutad
ĉie'
(everywhere)
naulad
nenie
(nowhere)
Manner kemek
kiel
(how)
emekēsin
tiel
(thus)
unemek
iel
(somehow)
toutemek
ĉiel
(in every way)
naulemek
neniel
(in no way; no-how)
Association kíenoze
kies
(whose)
esin(íen)oze/esan(íen)oze
ties
(this/that one's)
un(íen)oze
ies
(someone's)
tout(íen)oze
ĉies
(everyone's)
naul(íen)oze
nenies
(no one's)
Thing kíer
kio
(what)
esin/esan
tio
(this/that)
unēsen
io
(something)
toutēsen
ĉio
(everything)
naulēsen
nenio
(nothing)
Amount kíersaum
kiom
(how much)
plũrimēsan
tiom
(that much)
un
iom
(some)
tout
ĉiom
(all of it)
naul
neniom
(none)
Individual kíen
kiu
(who)
esin(íen)/esan(íen)
tiu
(this/that one)
un(íen)
iu
(someone)
tout(íen)
ĉiu
(everyone)
naul(íen)
neniu
(no one)

Relformaide also has its own correlative hierachy, shown below:

Concept Deixis Pronoun Parent morpheme(s)
Proximal Medial Distant Question (?) Relative
Distance proxim
near
proxam
far
proxaum
beyond
kíerproxem
how far
jíerproxem
how far
proxem
Where (Location) hinad
here
hanad
there
haunad
yonder
kíerad
where
jíerad
where
(h*n/-íer)ad
What (Subject/Object) esin
this
esan
that
esaun
yon
kíer
what
jíer
what
esen/-íer
Who (Person) esiníen
this one
esaníen
that one
esauníen
yon one
kíen
who
jíen
who
-íen
When (Time) noutwob
now
puiwob
then
puiwobard
far back
kaurad
when
jaurad
when
noutwob/puiwob/maurad
Why (Reason/Cause) póvaudesin
this reason
póvaudesan
that reason
póvaudesaun
yon reason
kóvaud
why
jóvaud
why
póvaud
How (Manner/Method/Way) emekēsin
this way
emekēsan
that way
emekēsaun
yon way
kemek
how
jemek
how
emek

Determiners

As with nouns, all words classified as determiners end in -o, -a, or -e, and adhere to the elision rules.

  • Both articles (l- and un-)
  • Demonstratives (esine/esane [this/that], esaune [yon])
  • Possessive pronouns (e.g. moz-, toz-, lumoz-)
  • Numerals before nouns (oane, touve, trige, kaute, kine, oate, deye, kindèye, sente, kíloge, oanarde)
  • Quantifiers (kuilibe [any], paulime [much/many], peuve [few], plũrime [several], une [some/a certain...], touƒtoute [both], toute [every/all])
  • Distributive words (aivé [each])
  • Interrogatives kière and kíenoze
  • Relative pronouns jière and jíenoze

Affects

Several Relformaide suffixes and suffixoids serve as affects to regular roots:

Size

  • Diminutive -et, which denotes miniature/dwarf forms of objects. Examples include ékuine (horse) → ékuinète (pony); aumbra (woman) → aumbreta (dwarfette/midget/munchkin); and toapé (stone) → toapète (pebble). -et corresponds to the impersonal free root aubim- (small).
  • Medial -ead, which indicates medium-sized objects. Commonly used with clothes and footwear-related roots, as in chámezeade (medium shirt); hoaseneade (medium pants); and jódeades (medium shoes). Corresponds to the position-specific mẽrk- (middle/central), along with the location-specific prolad- (between).
  • Augmentative -ard, which indicates large objects. Found in such derivations as plovarda (big boat = ship), laufarde (big air = atmosphere), toaparde (large stone = rock), and doarmíenarde (sleeping giant); corresponds to free roots aubaum- (size; impersonal) and eushel- (age). In Relformaide, aubaumiène (someone who is big in size), tuerārde (big creature) and aumbrarde (big human) are synonyms for English "giant".

Age

  • Nascent -eb, which denotes newborn/baby forms of creatures and plants: nèke (cat) → nekèbe (baby kitten); fazole (bean) → fazolèbe (bean sprout); aumbra (woman) → aumbreba (baby girl).
  • Juvenile -ed, which denotes young forms of creatures and plants. Examples include nèke (cat) → nekède (kitten); nâye (dog) → nâyède (puppy); aumbra (woman) → aumbreda (girl); and tuere (creature) → tuerède (cub/whelp). -ed always follows -et in forms such as ékuinétède (young pony).
  • Geriatric -eld, which denotes senior/elder creatures and old objects/customs: aumbra (woman) → aumbrelda (old woman); kima (queen) → kimelda (old queen); eskũro (squirrel) → eskũreldo (old squirrel); strúbaine (building) → strúbainelde (old building); besnèle (custom) → besneŕelde (tradition).

Suffixoids -eshoan (adolescent/teenager) and -eushel (adult/mature) can also be appended to animate roots, but are not encountered as often.

Focus

  • -uit/oip is used as an intensifier/differentiator (véyar = see/véyoipar = stare; ludes nend lúduites = games and sports), while -iruj and -erim signify emphasis (Luma peraigirújat = She really did it; Le guerte belerimat = The garden is very beautiful). -evoir translates to English "even" (Mevoires bengeplerimat = Even we can type very well).

Personal

Relformaide boasts eight personal particles, each with different levels of intensity:

  • Pejorative -ach, the strongest and most intensive, is a catchall profanity.
  • Three epithets of contempt—-puaz (literally "rotten"), -eskom (meaning "trash"/"garbage"/"rubbish"), and -úbel ("shoddy"/"of poor/low quality")—substitute -ach in family-friendly speech. Another substitute is -úzaum, or "pitiful"/"poor little...".
  • -uvam indicates that the subject is outstanding, exceptional, impressive, high-class, or brilliant in quality or behaviour.
  • Affectionate marker -yoab takes on various meanings, from "dear", "love", "honey", "sweetheart", and "cutie" in English, to "cher/chère" in French; the similar -yoaf stands for "attractive"/"hot".
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