Relformaide Dictionary:Grammar/Word classes

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Word classes
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All words in Relformaide are categorised into nine classes: articles, pronouns, nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, adpositions, conjunctions, and interjections.


Both of Relformaide's articles, l (the) and un (a/an/some), are always attached to their host roots à la Romanian.


English has one definite article, the, which translates into -lo (masculine), -la (feminine) and -le (neuter) in Relformaide:

ríantlo (the father), ríantla (the mother), ríant (the parent).

When a plural noun is used, -s is likewise added to the end:

ríantlos (the fathers), ríantlas (the mothers), ríantlés (the parents).

-Lo/-la/-le exhibits elision similar to French when it becomes l' before a vowel:

l'aumbro (the man), l'aumbra (the woman), l'aumbré (the person).

It switches back to -los/-las/-les in plural form, however:

aumbrilos (the men), aumbrilas (the women), aumbriles (the persons/people).

Countries with traditional plural forms remain that way when converted into Relformaide:

Verpuem-Územtimiles (United States), Ulemúzemiles (Netherlands),[1] Mauldivlés (Maldives), Filipiniles (Philippines), Bahamlas (Bahamas).


English's indefinite article, a(n), corresponds to -uno (masculine), -una (feminine), and -une (neuter) in Relformaide:

nekuno (a tomcat), nekuna (a queen cat), nekune (a cat);
mosheluno (a male meerkat), mosheluna (a female meerkat), moshelune (a meerkat).

Before vowels, it turns into un':

un'aumbra (a woman), un'audiène (a listener), un'edo (a boy), un'élemente (an element).

Pluralised, it becomes the word for some:

edunos (some boys), aumbrunas (some women), aumbredunes (some children), kimunes (some monarchs); gómaidunes (some secrets).

When a case mesoclitic is involved, the host root is assumed to be definite unless un- is placed between both:

obeninti (in the house); eskoltúgu (outside school); nekúlemu (below the cat's paws); móbilunabuamu (furnished with a car).

Relformaide also makes use of the partitive case in forms such as bauterúnète (some butter), fáloavúnète (some bread), and lechúnète (some milk).



Relformaide's pronoun system is modelled after those of Spanish and Quechua, and honours the T–V distinction found in various Romance languages.[2] All pronouns decline for case, number, and gender, as do nouns. This table covers the basic neuter forms; for a complete rundown, see Project:Pronoun chart.

Person Type
Subject Object Indirect Possessive Reflexive Reflexive Emphatic
Determiner / Pronoun Adjective Verb Emphatic
1st Singular mié madé mozé mozi mozar sebmozé sebmé séblimé
Plural més miés madés mozés möutozi möutozar sebmozés sebmés séblimés
2nd (Familiar) Singular tié tadé tozé tozi tozar sebtozé sebté séblité
Plural tés tiés tadés tozés tüetozi tüetozar sebtozés sebtés séblités
2nd (Formal) Singular usté ustié ustadé ustozé ustozi ustozar sébustozé sébusté séblusté
Plural ustés ustiés ustadés ustozés ustüetozi ustüetozar sébustozés sébustes séblustés
3rd Singular lumé lumié lumadé lumozé lumozi lumozar séblumozé séblumé séblilumé
Plural lumés lumiés lumadés lumozés lumöutozi lumöutozar séblumozés séblumés séblilumés
4th Subject selbé selbie selbade selboze selbozi selbozar sësselboze sësselbe sébliselbe
Object selbème selbemie selbemade selbemoze selbemozi selbemozar sësselbemoze sësselbème sebliselbème


Relformaide employs a special pronoun, selbé/selbo/selba, to denote the subject last referred to. Derived from German, it acts the same way as its Lojban influence, ri.

Jaurad lumo vat, selbo prendat poabrëanslés. (When he goes, he takes the keys.) (The selbo is the lumo the sentence refers to, and no one else.)

When the subject is also the object, selbié/selbio/selbia is used:

Jaurad luma vat, toutiène véyat selbia. (When she goes, everyone sees her.)

If another sentence refers to the object, then selbème/selbemo/selbema is used:

Jauno véyat l'aibũre. Selbème pódalerimat. (John sees the tree. It is very tall.)

When two or more items are stated, a reference number follows selb*/selbem*, as demonstrated in this translation from Herman Melville's Moby-Dick (Chapter 135, "The Chase — Third Day"):

«Plovarda! Moarttenière!—touƒtème moarttenière!» pékrivat Âhabo selboanadi; «selbtrigozé drève seulÁmerikaik!»
"The ship! The hearse!—the second hearse!" cried Ahab from the boat; "its wood could only be American!"

Here, selboanadi refers to the ship Captain Ahab himself is on, and selbtrigozé refers to "the second hearse".


In addition, the language possesses several relative pronouns, all of which are counterparts to the interrogatives and begin with j.

Pronoun Interrogative Parent morpheme English meaning
jiène kiène -íen who
jíenie kíenie -íen whom
jíenoze kíenoze -íen whose
jière kière -íer which, that


Gendered nouns

In Relformaide, nouns given to members of the taxonomic kingdom Animalia are assigned masculine (male) and feminine (female) forms, ending in -o and -a respectively. This is the case for human beings, as shown below:

aumbro (man; male human) corresponds to aumbra (woman; female human). Similarly, edo (young male) corresponds to eda (young female).

Plurals are formed by adding an -s at the end:

aumbros (men)/aumbras (women); edos (young males)/edas (young females).

The above rules also apply to non-human animals:

chono(s)/chona(s) (cat[s]); nâyo(s)/nâya(s) (dog[s]); báleano(s)/báleana(s) (whale[s]).

Neuter nouns

When the subject's gender is unknown, undetermined, unspecified, or irrelevant, the neuter form (-e) is assumed; this also applies to groups and crowds with members in both genders:

aumbré(s) (person[s]); ríante(s) (parents); bíenède(s) (young person[s]); choné(s) (cat[s]); nâye(s) (dog[s]); báleane(s) (whale[s]).

Although they are living organisms, plants and trees are considered neuter:

plantile (plant), l'aibũre (tree), flũrile (flower), tovallé (garden/swamp weed).

All other nouns are considered inanimate, and also end with -e in most cases:

chairile (chair; concrete object), voasenile (summer; abstract concept), l'ästrettánule (astronomy; study/field).

If a neuter word's last three letters are e + C + e, then the penultimate e receives a grave accent (è):

moshelo (male meerkat), moshela (female meerkat), moshèle (meerkat).

Several dozen neuter nouns retain the original -o or -a of their original etymons, marking them with an underdot. This is the only scenario where le(s) and une(s) can be used as real words.

une kasínọ (a casino), plũrime mangạ (several manga volumes), le piezạ (the pizza), les toamạtọs (the tomatoes).

Masculine nouns

Relformaide boasts a small set of inherently masculine words rooted in Christianity and astronomy:

  • Paipo (the Pope),[3] Dómeno (the Lord), Jesúyo (Jesus), Kristo (Christ);
  • Júpito (Jupiter), Mạrzo (Mars), Mokilo (Mercury), Neptuvo (Neptune), Pluto, Satũrno (Saturn), Yureno (Uranus).

Feminine nouns

While inanimate in nature, Relformaide nonetheless follows English tradition with the feminine plova (boat)/plovarda (ship), and all other words for water transportation. Vênauza, the language's name for the planet Venus, is also feminine.


For words in this category, the same rules for gender apply:

  • póliezíeno (policeman)/póliezíena (policewoman) — formed from pólieze (the police [force])
  • pîloto/pîlota (pilot)
  • flâmerivíeno/flâmerivíena (firefighter)
  • livrusontíeno/livrusontíena (librarian)
  • ódígíeno/ódígíena (leader [of a country]; driver [of a car])
  • kimo (king)/kima (queen)
  • kimódro (prince)/kimódra (princess)
  • dúko (duke)/dúka (duchess)
  • Senoro (Sro., Mister/Mr.)/Senora (Sra., Missis/Mrs.); Eusenora (Eusa., Miss/Ms.)
  • Aultado/Aultada (Highness)
  • (lo) Paipo (the Pope)

Proper nouns

Proper nouns are converted per Relformaide's spelling conventions. All first names of people are given -o/-a endings, depending on the subject's gender. Names of languages are treated as neuter, ending with -e. In similar fashion to Ido , place names can either end with -e or inherit the -o or -a from the original word, but remain neuter.

Examples include Jauno (John; male name), Samanfa (Samantha; female given name), Karibine (Caribbean; place name), Tokýo (place name with -o), Somalida (Somalia; place name with -a), and Mandạrine (Mandarin; language). For more, please see § Words and phrases.

Imported words

Surnames, terms such as QWERTY, and names of species (such as Homo sapiens) are mainly borrowed from English, and neither change their spellings nor inflect in Relformaide. This is the only instance where the language permits the use of c and q. (To mark pronunciation, c is converted into either ć [for /k/] or ç [for /s/].)


All verbs in Relformaide end with -ar in their infinitive forms, and possess regular conjugation throughout. Unlike in the Romance languages, they are not marked for person, but rather for tense, mood, and sometimes gender plus number (as well as the perfect and prospective aspects).



Infinitive verbs end with -ar, as many do in Spanish. Conjugation involves

  • -at for indicative forms;
  • -aik for the conditional and subjunctive moods;
  • -ait for the imperative;
  • -aijat for the prospective aspect;
  • -ant for the progressive aspect (present participle);
  • -asant for the continuative aspect;
  • -aid for past participles.

The -av- affix is also used for perfect forms, resulting in:

  • -avar, perfect infinitive;
  • -avat, perfect indicative;
  • -avaik, perfect conditional;
  • -antavat, progressive perfect;
  • -aijavat, prospective perfect.

Verbal nouns, meaning "an act of...", can be formed by adding at the end. Resultative nouns, meaning "the result of doing...", are formed with -ain followed by an e.

In certain advanced instances, verbs can inflect for gender by simply adding -o/-a after the tense/mood suffix:

Chuzlumato (He cooks), Troavlumata (She works), Plétozata (Used to be yours [addressing a female listener]).

These forms can also inflect in the plural, which is mandatory for the neuter -es:

Flegmatos (We are nurses; male speakers), Benkantábiltatas (You can sing well; to females), Dosellumatés (They are teachers; of males and females).

There are five tense markers (or augments) which are added before indicative forms, as well as conditional/subjunctive and continuative/progressive forms; the present tense has none. These are the only prefixes in Relformaide to end with vowels.

  • nupé-/(pre-vowel) nuper- — Recent Past
  • pé-/(pre-vowel) per- — Simple Past
  • plé-/(pre-vowel) pler- — Discontinuous Past
  • fé-/(pre-vowel) fer- — Future
  • péfé-/(pre-vowel) péfer- — Future in the Past

Negation is expressed with the nal- prefix, which always precedes the tense slot (and is the leftmost possible morpheme in a Relformaide word). Due to morphological processes, nal- always turns into naŕ- unless before a beginning vowel, b, h, or l.

Inflection types


Relformaide's two finite markers are -at (indicative/INF) and -ait (imperative/IMP).

duerat (SBJ love[s]), duerait (love!).

The nonfinite markers are -ar (infinitive/INF), -ant (present participle/PR.PTCP), -aid (past participle/PST.PTCP), and -aik (conditional/subjunctive / COND/SBJ).

duerar (to love), duerant (loving), dueraid (loved [by an entity]), dueraik (could/would/should love; that SBJ love).

TAM system


As mentioned earlier, Relformaide expresses tense with nupé- (recent past/PST.REC), pé- (simple past/PST), ple- (discontinuous past/PST.DISC), fe- (future/FUT), and péfé- (future in the past/PST-FUT); the present is unmarked (Ø).

duerat (love[s]), nupéduerat (just loved), péduerat (loved), pléduerat (used to love), féduerat (will love), péféduerat (would love).

Aspect is expressed with -ant (progressive/PROG), -asant (continuative/CONT), -avat (perfect/PERF), and -aijat (prospective/PRSP).

duerant (is/are loving), duerasant (is/are still loving), dueravat (has/have loved), dueraijat (is/are about to love).

Mood is expressed with the realis -at (indicative/IND), and the irrealis -ait (infinitive/INF) and -aik (conditional/subjunctive / COND/SJV).

duerat (love[s]), duerait (love!), dueraik (could/would/should love; that SBJ love).

-ait is also used for optative statements, formed with VSO:

Aubogait-suertiles fímondu tió. (May the odds ever be in your favour.)
Tüvvait-lumo, Díevómistu! (Let him go for Heaven's sake!)


Aktionsart, German for lexical aspect, concerns the structure of verbs in relation to time.


Active verbs in Relformaide are always transitive in SVO/OVS sentences, and intransitive in their passive forms.

Brîănto duerat Ashlêya. (Brian loves Ashley.)
Brîănto duerat Ashlêyieba. (Brian is loved by Ashley. = Ashley loves Brian.) (-ieb is the ergative case marker.)
Brîănto dueraidat. (Brian is loved. = Someone loves Brian.)

Intransitive verbs are stative, along with forms stemming from nominal, adjectival, and adpositional roots.

Esines toutwobu hódiezat. (These things always happen.) (Intransitive Verb)
Jauno plépîlotat. (John was once a pilot.) (Noun)
Esan'aumbro pódalat. (That man is tall.) (Adjective)
Wilmintaune proximat kortileń Ătlăntiki. (Wilmington is near the Atlantic shore.) (Adposition)

Unless expressed by the analytic avat -aid, statives do not assume passive conjugation:

Tés avat tristaid wob touti razile! (You guys have been sad the whole time!)


As in English, Relformaide contains five levels of verbal valency: impersonal, intransitive, transitive, ditransitive, and tritransitive. Valency determines the number of arguments that a verbal predicate takes.


With impersonal verbs, a dummy subject such as "it" precedes the predicate. In Relformaide, they do not conjugate in the passive voice at all; words dealing with weather conditions are the most common examples, among them pleuvar (to rain) and nívinar (to snow). Whereas English uses "It rains", Relformaide drops the subject entirely and simply uses Pleuvat.


In sentences with intransitive verbs, the subject (S) is the only argument involved. In Relformaide, intransitives also lack passive conjugation; examples include bar (be), hódiezar (happen/occur/take place), and adjective-/noun-/adposition-based constructs.

EsineS pléhódiezat. (This used to happen.)
PastelléS shoulat. (The cake is white.)
Mạriya SkautiS pékimat. (Mary of Scotland was a queen.)

Transitive verbs normally take a subject (agent; A) and an object (O) (patient; P) in sentences; Relformaide examples include dezar (say), audar (hear), kantar (sing), toakar (play music/perform), skríbar (write), véyar (see), mitar (send), tenar (have/hold), and ódígar (drive/lead).

LumoS/A véyat l'ourème.O/P (He sees the city.)
LumasS/A kantat kantaidune.O/P (They [the women] sing a song.)

Transitives also behave like intransitives when no object is present, as in:

BobinoS troavat bromu. (Bobby works hard.)

Verbs of motion, such as var (go) and hendar (walk), are only transitive when referring to distance covered:

Nend méS/A hendaik kinsente pouzardesO/P—nend mé hendaik selbème shobrèles... (And I would walk 500 miles—and I would walk 500 more...)

In all other cases, they are nominally intransitive:

Lumozés móbileS plévat lesmu. (Our car was once a slowpoke.)

At least one verb, vũrdar (consider), uses a non-core argument (oblique; Ob) that governs the essive case:

LumésS/A pévũrdat lumiaO/P pualnandu.Ob (They took her for a fool.)

Ditransitive verbs take a subject and two objects, one direct and the other indirect (I). Relformaide marks the indirect object with the ad adposition, as shown in this example involving óbrar (give):

MáfeuloS/A feróbrat l'aumbredadaI livriles.O/P (Matthew will give the books to the girl.)

Verbs whose stems end in -óbr govern the dative case:

RíantoS/A sidóbrardat fraulizällé.I (Daddy strongly approves of the union.) (Sidóbrar literally means "give a yes [sid] to".)

Some sources classify English bet as tritransitive (taking three objects). The Relformaide equivalent, gealar, requires an indirect object, a direct object, and a relative or prepositional clause at most:

MaS/A gealat tadoI touve zanauris pasteltimesO/P jíer Bellwether férëvválimaidat.RCl (I bet you two slices of carrot cake that Bellwether gets re-elected.)
ShĩrlêyaS/A gealavat selboz'amitadeI deykíloge daulèresO/P aup suikolozlo bouŕálistesèle.PCl (Shirley's bet her friend $10,000 on the traitor's deserved possible abdication.)

Conjugation overview

The names of Relformaide's aspect and mood classes are named after the order in which the affixes are placed, and differ from standard terms used in other resources and publications.

Aspect/Mood Tense
Present Recent Past Simple Past Discontinuous Past Future Future in the Past
Simple R-at
just did
used to do
will do
would do
Progressive R-ant
is/are doing
was/were just doing
was/were doing
used to be doing
will be doing
would be doing
Continuative R-asant
is/are still doing
was/were just still doing
was/were still doing
used to be still doing
will be still doing
would be still doing
Progressive Perfect R-ant-av-at
has/have been doing
has/had just been doing
had been doing
used to have been doing
will have been doing
would have been doing
Continuative Perfect R-asant-av-at
has/have been still doing
has/had just been still doing
had been still doing
used to have been still doing
will have been still doing
would have been still doing
Progressive Prospective R-ant-aij-at
is/are about to be doing
was just about to be doing
was/were about to be doing
used to be about to be doing
will be about to be doing
would be about to be doing
Progressive Conditional/Subjunctive R-ant-aik
ought to be doing;
...that SBJ be doing
was just ought to be doing
was ought to be doing
should have used to be doing
shall be doing
should be doing
Continuative Conditional/Subjunctive R-asant-aik
ought to be still doing;
...that SBJ still be doing
was just ought to be still doing
was ought to be still doing
should have used to be still doing
shall still be doing
should still be doing
Perfect R-av-at
has/have done
has/had just done
had done
used to have done
will have done
would have done
Perfect Progressive[4] R-av-ant
having done
having just done
having done previously
having done at one point
but not anymore
having done soon
having done soon in the past
Perfect Prospective R-av-aij-at
is/are about to have done
is just about to have done
was/were about to have done
used to be about to have done
will be about to have done
would be about to have done
Perfect Conditional/Subjunctive R-av-aik
ought to have done;
...that SBJ have done
just ought to have done
was ought to have done
should have used to have done
shall have done
should have done
Passive Simple R-aid-at
is/are done
is/are just done
was/were done
used to be done
will be done
would be done
Passive Progressive R-aid-ant
is/are being done
is/are just being done
was/were being done
used to be being done
will be being done
would be being done
Passive Continuative R-aid-asant
is/are still being done
is/are just still being done
was/were still being done
used to be still being done
will be still being done
would be still being done
Passive Perfect R-aid-av-at
has/have been done
had just been done
had been done
used to have been done
will have been done
would have been done
Passive Progressive R-aid-aij-at
is/are about to be done
was/were just about to be done
was/were about to be done
used to be about to be done
will be about to be done
would be about to be done
Passive Conditional/Subjunctive R-aid-aik
ought to be done;
...that SBJ be done
was/were just ought to be done
was/were ought to be done
should have used to be done
shall be done
should be done
Prospective Simple R-aij-at
is/are about to do
was/were just about to do
was/were about to do
used to be about to do
will be about to do
would be about to do
Prospective Perfect R-aij-av-at
has/have been about to do
has/have just been about to do
had been about to do
used to have been about to do
will have been about to do
would have been about to do
Prospective Conditional/Subjunctive R-aij-aik
ought to be about to do;
...that SBJ be about to do
was/were just ought to be about to do
was ought to be about to do
should have used to be about to do
shall be about to do
should be about to do
Conditional/Subjunctive R-aik
ought to do; could/would/should do; ...that SBJ do
was/were just ought to do
was ought to do
should have used to do
shall do
should do
Imperative/Cohortative R-ait!
let's do!

Conjugation examples

1: sujar

Equivalents of this verb are extremely irregular in various natural languages. Its conjugation in Relformaide is an exception, along with the Esperanto equivalent esti and Ido esar.

It is ungrammatical in English to precede be's past participle, been, with any other form of that verb. The same applies in Relformaide, where sujar lacks passive conjugation. The participle is retained in the perfect form, sujavat (have/has been).

Sujar is only used to introduce subjects in encyclopedia/news articles and biographies.

Infinitive: bar (to be)
Category Form Meaning
Affirmative Negative
Present sujat naŕsujat (I) am, (we/you/they) are, (he/she/it) is
Recent Past nupésujat naŕnupésujat (I/he/she/it) recently was, (you/they) recently were
Simple Past pésujat naŕpésujat (I/he/she/it) was, (you/they) were
Discontinuous Past plésujat naŕplésujat ...used to be
Future fésujat naŕfésujat ...will be
Future in the Past péfésujat naŕpéfésujat ...would be
sujaik naŕsujaik (that) SBJ be
Imperative sujait! naŕsujait! be!
Cohortative fébait! naŕfébait! let's (= let us) be!
Present Participle
(Progressive Active)
sujant naŕsujant be being
Continuative Active sujasant naŕsujasant still be being
Past Participle sujaid naŕsujaid been
Prospective sujaijat naŕsujaijat about to be, going to be
Passive Infinitive [5] [5]
Progressive Passive Infinitive [6] [6]
Past Participle Infinitive
(Perfect Active)
sujavar naŕsujavar (to) have been
Perfect Passive Infinitive [7] [7]
Verbal Noun sujé naŕsujé (the) being/existing
2: mankar

This root conjugates in both the active and passive voices. The French counterpart, manger, possesses regular conjugation (albeit with a few spelling adjustments where applicable). The English past tense form (ate) and past participle (eaten) deviate from the regular eat(s)/eating.

Infinitive: mankar (to eat)
Category Form Meaning
Affirmative Negative
Present mankat naŕmankat (I/we/you/they) eat, (he/she/it) eats
Recent Past nupémankat naŕnupémankat ...just ate
Simple Past pémankat naŕpémankat ...ate
Discontinuous Past plémankat naŕplémankat ...used to eat
Future fémankat naŕfémankat ...will eat
Future in the Past péfémankat naŕpéfémankat ...would eat
mankaik naŕmankaik (that) SBJ eat
Imperative mankait! naŕmankait! eat!
Cohortative fémankait! naŕfémankait! let's (= let us) eat!
Present Participle
(Progressive Active)
mankant naŕmankant be eating
Continuative Active mankasant naŕmankasant still be eating
Past Participle mankaid naŕmankaid eaten
Prospective mankaijat naŕmankaijat about to eat, going to eat
Passive Infinitive mankaidar naŕmankaidar be eaten
Progressive Passive Infinitive mankaidantar naŕmankaidantar be being eaten
Past Participle Infinitive
(Perfect Active)
mankavar naŕmankavar (to) have eaten
Perfect Passive Infinitive mankaidavar naŕmankaidavar have been eaten
Verbal Noun manké naŕmanké (the) eating
3: foartar

Adjectives can also be used to form verbs (meaning "to be ADJ"), but do not conjugate in the passive voice (as explained in Example 1). The noun form describes something that possesses the attribute in question.

Infinitive: foartar (to be strong)
Category Form Meaning
Affirmative Negative
Present foartat naŕfoartat (I) am strong, (we/you/they) are strong, (he/she/it) is strong
Recent Past nupéfoartat naŕnupéfoartat (I/he/she/it) was just strong, (you/they) were just strong
Simple Past péfoartat naŕpéfoartat (I/he/she/it) was strong, (you/they) were strong
Discontinuous Past pléfoartat naŕpléfoartat ...used to be strong
Future féfoartat naŕféfoartat ...will be strong
Future in the Past péféfoartat naŕpéféfoartat ...would be strong
foartaik naŕfoartaik (that) SBJ be strong
Imperative foartait! naŕfoartait! be strong!
Cohortative féfoartait! naŕféfoartait! let's (= let us) be strong!
Present Participle
(Progressive Active)
foartant naŕfoartant (be) being strong
Continuative Active foartasant naŕfoartasant still being strong
Past Participle foartaid naŕfoartaid been strong
Prospective foartaijat naŕfoartaijat about to be strong, going to be strong
Passive Infinitive
Progressive Passive Infinitive
Past Participle Infinitive
(Perfect Active)
foartavar naŕfoartavar (to) have been strong
Perfect Passive Infinitive
Adjectival Noun foarté naŕfoarté a strong thing; a fort
4: intar

Verbs can also be formed from adpositions; again, these forms do not conjugate in the passive voice. The past, past habitual, and future preverbs respectively become nuper-, per-, pler-, and fer- before this vowel-initial root.

Infinitive: intar (to be in)
Category Form Meaning
Affirmative Negative
Present intat nalintat (I) am in, (we/you/they) are in, (he/she/it) is in
Recent Past nuperintat naŕnuperintat (I/he/she/it) was just in, (you/they) were just in
Simple Past perintat naŕperintat (I/he/she/it) was in, (you/they) were in
Discontinuous Past plerintat naŕplerintat ...used to be in
Future ferintat naŕferintat ...will be in
Future in the Past péferintat naŕpéferintat ...would be in
intaik nalintaik (that) SBJ be in
Imperative intait! nalintait! be in!
Cohortative ferintait! naŕferintait! let's (= let us) be in!
Present Participle
(Progressive Active)
intant nalintant (be) being in
Continuative Active intasant nalintasant still being in
Prospective intaijat nalintaijat about to be in, going to be in
Past Participle intaid nalintaid been in
Passive Infinitive
Progressive Passive Infinitive
Past Participle Infinitive
(Perfect Active)
intavar nalintavar (to) have been in
Perfect Passive Infinitive
Adpositional Noun inté nalinté something that is indoors
5: skríbar

This is based on the rundown found in a late 19th-century book detailing the grammar of Manchu, an almost-extinct language of China.[8] (The progressive forms of this verb stand in for the translations marked as "Gerunds".)

Paradigm of skríbar (to write)
(Original verb: arambi)
Category Form Meaning
Manchu Relformaide
Imperative ara skríbait! write!
Present Tense arambi skríbat I write
Infinitive arame skríbar to write
Preterite araha péskríbat I wrote
Future arara féskríbat I shall write
Conditional araci skríbaik-mé should I write
Subjunctive Present araki skríbaik-lumo may [that] he write
Past Gerund arafi péskríbavantu having written
Imperfect arambihe péskríbant I was writing
Indefinite Past arahabi skríbavat I have written
Pluperfect arahabihe péskríbavat I had written
Past Conditional arahabici sif mé péskríbavaik if I had written
Adversative aracibe mólenoip lumo skríbaik although he may write
Concessive aracina skríbait-lumo may he write
Optative arakini seulsif lumo skríbaik would that he write
Gerund I arambime skríbwobu while writing
Gerund II arambifi skríbavantu having written
Gerund III aranggala skríbprevu before writing
Passive arambumbi skríbaidat it is written
Causative or Passive arambubumbi skríbaidinzat I cause to be written
Verbal Noun arahangge, ararangge skríbé, skríbiène the writing, the writer
Indefinite arahale, ararale jíenoipe skríbat whoever writes
Adverbial araralame skríbu in the manner of writing



Adjectives and adjectival phrases in Relformaide end in -i, and come either before nouns (as in English) or after (as in French):

beli neklo (the beautiful tomcat), beli nekla (the beautiful queen cat), beli jalanile (the beautiful road), vèyaidune frolausomi (a sight most delightful).

Elision is also observed, as in bel'aumbredla (the beautiful girl).

As in the Romance languages, adjectives end in -is if the nouns they describe are plural:

friedifis aumbredlas (the gentle girls), foartis bomiles (the strong walls), nekedlos rouradis (the kittens in the countryside).

In a sentence of analytic SVD (subject–verb–description) syntax, the adjective is converted into a verb and eliminates zero copula:

droiti(s) jalanile(s) (the straight road[s]) — BUT jalanile(s) droitat (the road is/the roads are straight).
l'obenaubré (the new house), obenaubriles (the new houses) — BUT l'obène ńaubrat (the house is new), les obènes bat aubri (the houses are new).

Comparatives and superlatives

Comparative forms of adjectives are made by adding -ausm at the end of a root; superlatives are formed with -ausom. Suppletion is thereby avoided in those forms.

joali/joalausmi/joalausomi (good/better/best);
beni/benausmi/benausomi (well/better/best);
máli/málausmi/málausomi (bad/worse/worst);
osivi/osivausmi/osivausomi (ill/worse/worst);
aulti/aultausmi/aultausomi (high/higher/highest).

To express "less"/"least", -eusm and -eusom are used:

boulaidi/boulaideusmi/boulaideusomi (important/less important/least important).



Adverbs, and adverbial phrases, end with -u. This is equivalent to the English -ly, French -ment and Spanish -mente in most given cases. Examples include:

belu (beautifully), fásilu (easily), óbrantu (generously), vúbegu (at all/somewhat), fuiwobetu (in a short while; adverbial phrase).

Comparatives and superlatives

Comparative and superlative adverbs are formed in the same manner as adjectives:

véyu/véyausmu/véyausomu (visually/more visually/most visually);
audaibilu/audaibileusmu/audaibileusomu (audibly/less audibly/least audibly).


Several relative adverbs are also used:

Pronoun Interrogative Parent morpheme(s) English meaning
jíeradu kíeradu -íer-ad where
jauradu kauradu maurad when
jóvaudu kóvaudu póvaud why
jemeku kemeku emek how


In Relformaide, adpositions are the same as the root forms they derive from, and also serve as standalone prepositions. Many of them are root affixes which double as postpositions after the nouns they modify.

Adposition Case English meaning
der GEN of — belonging to
den POSS of — associated with
ten PROP with — having
zol PROP with — owning
aseb COM with — accompanied by
auvek CNJ with an associated group
emek INSTR with the help of, aided by, via; on — supported by
aurd UTIL for, per
opon OPP/ANTI against, versus (in opinion)
ódim OPP/ANTI against, versus (in preference)
uslen TSP on behalf of, serving
nímel in charge of
ad LOC/DAT at, to;
on – by means of (medium)
obenad chez (French loan) – at the house of
int INE in
intad INE-LOC within, inside
intaup LAT/ILL into
inttug INE-ABL without – outside
tug ABL out(side)
tüvv ELA out of, away from
weg DEL off (surface), out of
íak SUPE on the surface of
íakad SUPE-LOC onto, upon, atop
róvinad aboard
ault ALT above, up, over
úlem SUBE below, under(neath), beneath, down
proxim APUD near, next to, near, (near)by
túdelad beside, at the side of, next to
ótrúdel opposite
aup ALL towards
tranz TRANS through, across
touttranz throughout
korttranz along
multint INTRS among a group of, amid
mẽrkint amidst, in the middle of
hout beyond, past
verhout behind, beneath
ond ABE without
nend INCL plus
moin EXC minus
prolad INTR between
tuig QUANT among those in a set, # of
oantuig SEL among, one of
wob TEMP during
prev ANTE before, by (a given time)
áprev PCV after, following, since, past a time
ósot TERM till
ósótuit TERM-INTF until
prin REF on – about; concerning
nand ESS as – in the role of
símil FORM like
ótrid NEG.FORM unlike
kuam COMP


As with adpositions, conjunctions also assume their root forms.

Conjunction English meaning
nend and/plus
sed but – rather
moin but – except; minus
jemek how
jían so (that), in order to/that
ẽrgim so – therefore
sif if
oudin or – inclusive; either...or...or both; and/or
ouden or – exclusive; either...or; one or the other
nal...ouden neither...nor
daisen whether
daisen...(nal)ouden whether...or (not)
ausik as – in the same way
nal not
póvaud because, since, for (obs./formal)
jíer that
mólen though
mólenoip although
jíerad where
sedwob whereas
voard whereas — being the fact that... (legal/formal)
sifmoin unless
jaurad when
prev before
áprev after
wob while
depuid since – from the time that...; afterward(s)
kíeroz whereof – of what/which
kíenoz whereof – of whom


Depending on the word, interjections either remain unchanged from their root forms, or add an -(a)t to them. Examples include:

  • véyat (look!)
  • dez (say)
  • hinvéyat (now see here!)
  • hin (here), han (there)
  • juet (cool!; all right!)
  • réshan (an expression of surprise)
  • suiban (whatever)
  • áchat (profanity catch-all)
  • kal/bueb (s[...]t/c[...]p)
  • veid (h[...]l)
  • bouf (an expression of annoyance or dismay)
  • blek (signifying disgust; equivalent to English yuck)
  • puaz (this stinks; P.U.)

Notes and references

  1. Also referred to as Haulandlé (Holland).
  2. As Mark Rosenfelder notes in this Quechua primer, "'You' and 'they' are regular plurals, formed by adding the plural suffix to the singular pronouns. That's a regularity that didn't occur to the inventor of Esperanto!"
  3. In spite of medieval European legend, no female Pope has ever headed the Catholic Church.
  4. Only used in adverbial form, as in Trouƒfímavantu, lumo pétüvvat l'oveale. (Having finished his work, he left the office.) This is also known as the perfect participle.
  5. 5.0 5.1 *Sujaidar is ungrammatical in Relformaide.
  6. 6.0 6.1 *Sujaidantar is ungrammatical in Relformaide.
  7. 7.0 7.1 *Sujaidavar is ungrammatical in Relformaide.
  8. von Möllendorff (1892), p. 10
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